African Journal of
Agricultural Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Agric. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1991-637X
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJAR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 6691

Full Length Research Paper

Identifying factors affecting agroforestry system in Swat, Pakistan

Muhammad Irshad1*, Asadullah Khan2, Mitsuhiro Inoue3, Muhammad Ashraf4 and  Hassan Sher5
1Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad-Pakistan. 2Department of Environmental Sciences, Hazara University, Haripur Pakistan. 3Arid Land Research Center, Tottori University, Tottori city, Hamasaka cho Japan. 4Department of Civil Engineering, Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar-Pakistan. 5Department of Botany, University of Swat, Saidu Sharif Pakistan.
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 29 April 2011
  •  Published: 04 June 2011


This study has identified factors that affect the adoption of agroforestry practices; these include farmers' perceptions towards agroforestry, socio-economic characters of farmers and constraints for the development of agroforestry. The analysis of data demonstrates that the factors affecting farmers’ adoption of agroforestry practices have been varied depending on the type of factor. Growing of trees was observed as a function of social and economical characteristics of the farming community. On-farm trees were grown for fuel-wood, timber, fodder, income generation, environmental purpose and for controlling erosion. Poor crop-stand, lack of markets, lack of nurseries, damage by animals and humans and lack of incentives were the obvious constraints expressed by the farmers. Bigger size of the family positively influenced tree cultivation. Farmer’s income has supported agroforestry. Education level encouraged trees. Farm trees species were distributed in the order of poplar > persimmon > peach > pear > walnut > apple > acacia > willow > plum. Further studies are suggested for the contribution of agroforestry to the household income, food security and sustainability of agriculture.


Key words: Agroforestry, farmers’ perceptions, constraints, socioeconomic factors, dry area.