African Journal of
Agricultural Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Agric. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1991-637X
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJAR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 6691

Full Length Research Paper

Physical properties of Tylosemia esculentum and the effect of roasting on the functional properties of its flour

V. A. Jideani, J. Van Wyk and M. H. Cruywagen      
Department of Food Technology, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, P.O. Box 652, Cape Town 8000, South Africa  
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 07 September 2009
  •  Published: 11 November 2009


The physical properties of two varieties of morama beans and the effect of roasting on the functional properties of their flours were studied. Majority (65, 92.5, 79%) of the seeds has medium dimensions (17.0 - 19.99, 14.0 - 19.99, 12.0 - 14.99 mm) of length, width and thickness respectively. The size of the morama bean (MB) follows a normal distribution, being much heavier than most other oil seeds and legumes with 1000-seed weight of 2.2 - 2.3 kg. Significantly higher angle of repose was observed for the cement surface (9.76o). MB sphericity (85.7-86.8%) and aspect ratio (91.9 - 92.5%) indicates that the bean will roll rather than slide. Morama flour (MF) is rich in protein (31.7 - 33.1%), fat (36.4 - 39.0%) and ash (2.9%). Roasting significantly increased the protein and ash. Roasting increased the water absorption capacity of MF significantly (P < 0.05) (211% increase). Roasting significantly increased the oil absorption capacity (112% increases). Emulsifying activity ranged from 37.90 - 38.20% respectively for light- and dark-brown morama flour. Emulsion stability ranged from 70.62% (light brown) to 72.18% (dark brown). The colour of unroasted MF is light yellow (L = 82.71, Hue angle = 88.05, Chroma = 26.21), turning darker and less saturated on roasting.


Key words: Morama bean, physical properties, functional properties, lightness, hue, chroma.