African Journal of
Agricultural Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Agric. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1991-637X
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJAR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 6693

Full Length Research Paper

Input-output energy analysis of citrus production in Mazandaran province of Iran

Majid Namdari1*, Ali Asadi Kangarshahi2 and Negin Akhlaghi Amiri2      
1Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran. 2Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Mazandaran, Iran.
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 11 May 2011
  •  Published: 04 June 2011


In this study, the citrus (orange and mandarin) production in Mazandaran province of Iran and the energy equivalences of input used in this production are investigated. Data in this study was obtained from 110 citrus orchards by a face to face questionnaire method. The results revealed that mandarin production had more energy intensive compared to orange. The major energy inputs in orange and mandarin production were diesel fuel (27 and 24%), chemical fertilizers (22 and 23%) and irrigation water (21 and 23%), respectively. The results showed that 62375.18 MJ ha-1 energy were consumed by orange orchards and 77501.17 MJ ha-1 by mandarin orchards. Energy use efficiency, energy productivity, specific energy, and net energy gain were calculated. The energy use efficiency for orange and mandarin were 0.99 and 0.77, respectively. In average, the non-renewable form of energy input was 67.14% of the total energy input used in citrus production compared to 33.07% for the renewable form. Optimal consumptions of diesel fuel, chemical fertilizers and other major inputs would be useful techniques for decreasing energy consumption in citrus production.


Key words: Orange, mandarin, energy use efficiency, Iran.