African Journal of
Agricultural Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Agric. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1991-637X
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJAR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 6712

Full Length Research Paper

The use of plant extracts in anthracnose control in species of Helconia (Heliconia psittacorum cv. Golden Torch and Heliconia rostrata)

Joicilene Rodrigues Gusmao
  • Joicilene Rodrigues Gusmao
  • Post-Graduation Program of Agroecology, State University of Maranhão, São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil.
  • Google Scholar
Antonia Alice Costa Rodrigues
  • Antonia Alice Costa Rodrigues
  • Post-Graduation Program of Agroecology, State University of Maranhão, São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil.
  • Google Scholar
Luiz Gustavo de Lima Melo
  • Luiz Gustavo de Lima Melo
  • Post-Graduation Program of Agroecology, State University of Maranhão, São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil.
  • Google Scholar
Erlen Keila Candido e Silva
  • Erlen Keila Candido e Silva
  • Post-Graduation Program of Agroecology, State University of Maranhão, São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil.
  • Google Scholar
Anna Christina Sanazario de Oliveira
  • Anna Christina Sanazario de Oliveira
  • Post-Graduation Program of Agroecology, State University of Maranhão, São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil.
  • Google Scholar
Anna Christina Sanazário de Oliveira
  • Anna Christina Sanazário de Oliveira
  • Post-Graduation Program of Agroecology, State University of Maranhão, São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil.
  • Google Scholar
Diogo Herison Silva Sardinha
  • Diogo Herison Silva Sardinha
  • Post-Graduation Program of Agroecology, State University of Maranhão, São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil.
  • Google Scholar
Heder Braun
  • Heder Braun
  • Post-Graduation Program of Agroecology, State University of Maranhão, São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil.
  • Google Scholar


  •  Received: 10 July 2018
  •  Accepted: 30 October 2018
  •  Published: 29 November 2018

 ABSTRACT

The objective of the present study was to assess the anti-fungal activity of medicinal plant extracts on inhibition of Colletotrichum gloesporioides mycelial growth, sporulation and germination and on anthracnose control in Heliconia psitacorum cv. Golden Torch and Heliconia rostrata. Extracts of garlic, lemon grass, cinnamon, lemon balm, eucalyptus, ginger, mint, bitter melon and black pepper were used. The, mycelial were assessed in vitro by measuring their growth in Petri dishes. Sporulation was assessed by counting spores in a Neubauer chamber. Germination was observed based on germination tube emission. In the in vitro tests, the inflorescences were treated with the plant extracts and inoculated with the pathogen 24 h later. The results showed that all the extracts presented anti-fungal activity, in greater or lesser intensity, compared to the control. The garlic extract resulted in the highest mycelial growth inhibition rate. Regarding sporulation, the bitter melon, ginger, mint, popcorn eucalyptus and bitter melon extracts were more efficacious, interfering in spore formation; while the ginger extract most reduced spore germination inhibiting germination tube emission. For the in vivo tests, it was observed that all the plant extracts tested were efficient in reducing lesion severity in the inflorescence, showing that the use of plant extracts may be a promising alternative for managing the diseases that affect helconia post-harvest.

Key words: Alternative control, fungi, Colletotrichum gloesporioides, tropical flowers.

 


 INTRODUCTION

Floriculture is one of the main segments of agrobusiness in Brazil, although the main consumer of flowers and ornamental plants produced in Brazil is the domestic Brazilian Market itself that accounts for more than 96% of the total (Sebrae, 2015). From 2014 to 2015,  the  volume of Brazilian exports was only 21.9 thousand dollars according to the Ministry of Industrial Development and Foreign Trade, values much lower than those presented in 2004 and 2005, which were a total of 12.7 million dollars (Brasil, 2017).

In 2015 the ornamental plant sector grossed more than R$ 6 bilhões (Alencar and Galera, 2016), showing its size and importance in the Brazilian economy. In the same period, the planted area was approximately 15.000 hectares, due mainly to a recurrent increase in the area used for this activity in Brazil, as in 2012 and 2013 the area was estimated at about 11.800 and 14.000 ha, respectively (Neves and Pinto, 2015).

There are no recent studies in the literature on the productive chain in the state of Maranhão, Brazil, and the local production is still not very enterprizing and focused essentially on supplying São Luís, the state capital. It concentrates on exploiting cut flowers and tropical foliage that include palm trees, bromelias, ferns, miniature roses and crotons (Sebrae, 2015).

The conditions of tropical ornamental plant cultivation, climate and planting density favor disease occurrence.  Diseases reduce production and affect flower quality; becoming a bottleneck for quality tropical flower production, because they cause both direct damage, when they infect the inflorescences causing dark spots, and indirect damage, by reducing the photosynthesis area of the plant when they colonise the leaves (Sardinha et al., 2012).

Sardinha et al. (2012), surveyed disease occurrence in tropical flowers on São Luís Island and reported the presence of 16 disease causal agents, especially fungal and nematoid diseases.

Plant diseases are mostly controlled by agricultural chemicals, which results in high costs, environmental and toxicological risks and favors plant pathogen resistance to agricultural chemicals. Society’s concern with dependence on toxic agricultural chemicals, that contaminate the environment, has led to the search for alternative control methods that are safe, viable and efficient in plant pathogen fungus control (Silva et al., 2010).

Control alternatives, including the use of biological and antagonistic plant extracts, have been studied, with significant advances for sustainable agriculture (Freitas, 2008).

Considering the potential of tropical flowers as a source of income for small and large producers and the presence of plant pathogens that can affect the yield of this activity, technologies need to be adopted that meet the requirements of these producers, especially in decreasing plant pathogens. Thus the objective of the present study was to assess the anti-fungal activity of crude plant extracts on the pathogen Colletotrichum gloesporioides Penz., causal agent of anthracnose in Heliconia psitacorum cv. Golden Torche and Heliconia rostrata.

 


 MATERIALS AND METHODS

The experiments were carried out in the Plant Pathology Laboratory at the Agronomic Biotechnology Nucleus  at the State  University  of Maranhão (UEMA), MA, Brazil.

Plant collection and plant pathogen isolation

Helconia leaves with disease symptoms were collected during three technical visits to the Vassoural Agrcultural Pole, in the municipality of Paço do Lumiar, on São Luís Island, Maranhão, Brazil. The material collected was taken to the Plant Pathology Laboratory at UEMA for isolation and identification and the isolates were stored.

 To isolate the plant pathogens, intermediary fragments of the lesions were cleaned with 70% alcohol, 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution and washed twice in distilled, sterilised water. The fragments were then plated on Petri dishes containing potato dextrose agar culture medium (PDA) and kept at ambient temperature (25±2°C) for fungal growth. The isolates were identified by observing the morphological aspects under a microscope and when necessary microcultures were used (Menezes and Assis, 2004). After identification, the isolates were placed in the “Prof. Gilson Soares da Silva” plant pathogenic fungus collection, with registration number MGSS114.

Obtaining the aqueous extract

Extracts used from garlic (Allium sativum L.), black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), were obtained from retail stores in São Luís; lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume.), lemon balm (Lippia alba L.) and mint (Mentha piperita L.), were purchased in public markets and eucalyptus  (Eucalyptus globulus L.); while bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.), and neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) were collected from the Paulo VI University campus at the State University of Maranhão (UEMA). The garlic and ginger extracts were prepared from bulbs and the other extracts were prepared from fresh leaves.

proportion used was 200 g/L; the materials were first washed with distilled water and then ground in a blender for 3 min. The extract was filtered three times: using a plastic sieve, then through a glass funnel containing sterile gauze and lastly through nitrocellulose membrane with 0.22 μm diameter pores, attached to a syringe. After filtering, the extracts were placed in a sterile dark recipients and kept refrigerated at 4°C until the tests.

Plant extract assessment on C. gloeosporiodes mycelial growth and sporulation

The plant extracts at 20% concentration were placed in PDA culture medium and poured into a previously autoclaved Petri dishes.  Five mm diameter discs containing C. gloeosporiodes structures were transferred to the centre of the Petri dishes and kept at ambient temperature (25±2°C).

Mycelial growth was assessed by measuring the mycelial growth of the colony, establishing a mean of two measurements taken at two diametrically opposite points, until the control treatment had taken the whole of the Petri dish. The inhibition percentage of the myceliall growth (PIC) was determined from the results, according to Edgington et al. (1971):

PIC = (Control Growth – Treatment Growth) / Control Growth × 100

Sporulation was assessed by evaluating the mycelial growth and 10 ml sterilised distilled water were added to each Petri dish. The colonies were scraped using a Drigalski handle to release the conidia, that were counted using a Neubauer chamber.

Assessment of plant extracts on C. gloesporiodes conidia germination

To assess germination inhibition on C. gloeosporiodes conidia provided by the plant extracts, a 4×105 conidia.mL-1 conidia suspension was prepared using a Neubauer chamber. Twenty microliters of the conidia suspension and 20 μL of each extract to be tested were placed on sterilised glass slides. The control consisted of the conidia suspension with no plant extracts. The slides were placed on Petri dishes containing two layers of moist filter paper and kept in BOD at 25 ± 1°C for 9 h (Celoto et al., 2008). At the end of this period, a drop of lactophenol was added to interrupt spore germination. The germination percentage was determined by counting 100 spores under a microscope, separating the germinated from non-germinated spores. A spore is considered germinated when it presents a germination tube bigger or equal to its width.

The spore germination inhibition percentage (PIG) was obtained from the results by the following formula:

PIG = (Control growth – No. of germinated spores the treatment) / Number of spores germinated in the control × 100

In vivo assessment of plant extracts for anthracnose control in H. psittacorum cv Golden Torch and H. rostrata

After collection, the cut helconia were taken to the Plant Pathology Laboratory at the State University of Maranhão and selected with uniform colour and size and no mechanical injury. The flower stems were disinfected by washing with 10% (v/v) sodium hydrochlorite solution for 2 min, then washing in running water. After drying, the stems were submitted to the treatments by pulverision with the plant extracts at 20% concentration and the addition of Tween 20 (0.02% v/v).

After applying the plant extracts, the plants were kept in a wet chamber for 24 h and then inoculated with C. gloesporioides by placing a disc of pure fungus culture in PDA culture medium on the flower stem lesions and each stem was inoculated at three points. Assessment started three days after inoculation, when the severity was assessed by measuring the lesion size.

The experimental unit consisted of one flower or inflorescence. The assessments were carried out by measuring the mean lesion diameter and establishing the mean of two measurements taken in diametrically opposite positions.

Statistical analysis

A completely randomised block experimental design was used with 11 treatments and five replications, except for the C. gloesporiodes conidia germination assessment, where four replications were used. The data obtained were submitted to analysis of variance and the means compared by the Scott-Knott test at the level of 5%.

 


 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Effect of plant extracts on C. gloesporioides mycelial growth and sporulation

The result of the analysis of variance indicated differences in the plant extract anti-fungal activity on C. gloesporioides for both mycelial growth and sporulation (Table 1). At the end of the assessments it was observed that   the   plant  extracts   tested   presented  anti-fungal activity, in greater or lesser intensity, compared to the control, based on the fungus colony diameter.

 

 

The garlic extract treatment presented the best result with 50.37% C. gloesporioidess mycelial growth inhibition (Table 1), corroborating Venturoso et al. (2011) who assessed the inhibitory effect of plant extracts on plant pathogens and observed that extracts of garlic, clove and cinnamon presented fungitoxic properties and inhibited mycelial growth of the plant pathogens tested (Aspergillus species, Penicillium species, Cercospora kikuchii, Colletotrichum species, Fusarium solanie, Phomopsis species). Mycelial growth inhibition by natural antimicrobials is due to the presence of bioactive substances found in plants (Chiejina and Ukeh, 2012; Silva et al., 2014).

The potential fungitoxic effect of crude garlic extract on mycelial growth was also observed in fungi that cause anthracnose in strawberry plants (Colletrotrihcum acutatum) (Almeida et al., 2009) and on the causal agent of red rot in sisal (Aspergillus niger) (Souza and Soares, 2013). Nascimento et al. (2013) tested aqueous extracts and observed that bitter melon was efficacious in inhibiting mycelial growth of Cercospora calendulae at the (10000 mg L-1) concentration with 40% inhibition. 

Although garlic extract resulted in less mycelial growth compared to the other extracts, when sporulation was observed, the extracts of bitter melon, ginger, mint, neem, eucalyptus, pepper and lemon balm were more efficacious in inhibiting C. gloeosporioides spore production (Table 1).  However, bitter melon gave the biggest anti-sporulation effect that may have been due to production of bioactive substances such as momordicin, alkaloid, flavonoid, saponin, glycoside, phenol constituints, phenylalanine, arginine, lignan-calceolarioside, and triterpene-momordicine alkaloide zeatin (Martins-Ramos et al., 2010).

When spore formation is more inhibited, the product is more eficient. This is because the spores produce propagules that disseminate and infect the plant.

Several studies have indicated the use of plant extracts for fungal disease control. Simon et al. (2016) studied medicinal plant extracts to control Diplocarpon rosae and observed anti-sporulation effect using crude Equisetum arvense L. aqueous extract (EBA) and a commercial product based on fermented plant extracts, and further observed protein synthesis in the D. rosae mycelium in the treatment with EBAs of R. officinalis, E. arvense, and Moringa oleifera, the commercial plant oil-based product and a citrus matter-based product, respectively. Ferreira et al. (2014) observed an inhibitory of neem seed extract until the third day that reduced sporulation in C. gloeosporioides collected from papaya fruits.

Plant extract effect on C. gloeosporioides conidia germination

All the plant extracts tested in the germination experiment showed potential for spore germination inhibition (Table 2). However, the ginger plant extract presented the highest spore germination inhibition (95.32%), followed by the extracts of garlic (91.45%), bitter melon (88.5%), mint (82.37%) and lemon grass (81.28%). This inhibition was observed by Amadi et al. (2014) when ginger and guava extracts were used on the sporulation and germination of fungus spores stored in melons and was observed that the sporulation and spore germination were inhibited of Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Rhizopus stolonifer and Fusarium.

 

 

Only cinnamon and lemon balm, of the plant extracts tested, presented germination inhibition below 50%.

Brito  and   Nascimento   (2015)  obtained  similar  results when they studied plant extract fungitoxic potential on Curvularia eragrostidis and observed that garlic, ginger, neem and citronela, starting at 25% concentration, presented bigger plant toxic effects in the in vitro analysis; reducing mycelial growth and sporulation as well as fungus germination. Marcondes et al. (2014) also observed that 20% garlic extract completely inhibited C. gloeosporioidese conidia germination and reduced the number and germination of Fusarium moniliforme conidia.

The fungitoxicity of garlic extracts on fungus spore germination has been reported in several other studies, that it decrease the germination of sexed spores and conidia of a  range  of  fungi  pathogenic to plants (Souza and Soares, 2013; Wilson et al., 1997).

Lorenzi and Matos (2002) reported that aromatic herbs, such as garlic and ginger, have bacteriacide and fungicide action, because they contain allicin, inulin, gingerol and shorgaol in their chemical composition that confer high potential to these plants for control of several pathogens. Morais (2004), observed that 20% garlic aqueous extract concentrations inhibited Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht., Emend., Snyder., and Hansen. conidia germinationin.

Oliveira et al. (2008) reported that the use of neem and garlic plant extracts at different concentrations (20, 30 and 40%) may be control alternatives for Fusarium gutiforme. Souza et al. (2007) reported that garlic and lemon grass (C. citratus Stapf.) extracts inhibited germination of the fungus Fusarium proliferatum (Matsush.), but were more efficient at concentrations above 2.5%. According to the authors, these extracts have inhibitory constituents, thus indicating the possibility of using plant extracts to protect the host and/or eradicate the pathogen.

Conidia germination inhibition and deformities in the germination tubes due to plant extract action have been reported. Bonaldo et al. (2004) assessed autoclaved Corymbia citriodora aqueous extract on Colletotrichum lagenarium (Pass.) Ellis and Halst. conidia germination and observed that at concentrations of over 5% fresh leaves (p/v), there was 90% germination inhibition and when 25% plant extracts were used the inhibition was 100%.

Deformity has also been reported concerning the germination tube morphology of the germinated conidia, an effect accentuated by increase in concentration. Souza et al. (2007) observed decrease in F. proliferatum spore germination due to increased concentration in garlic and lemon grass plant extracts; at 10% concentration there was 90 and 81% inhibition, for the two extracts, respectively. Bonaldo et al. (2007) assessed C. citriodora essential oil at different doses (5 to 60 μL), and reported 100% inhibition in apressorium germination and formation in Colletotrichum sublineolum for all the doses tested.

The variation in the results obtained when using plant extracts for plant disease control was probably due to the variable quantity and chemical composition of the plant extracts (Silva, 2006).

Assessment of plant extract action on anthracnose control in H. psitacorum cv Golden Torche and H. rostrata

The results of the in vivo test with C. gloesporioide in H. psitacorum cv. Golden torch showed that all the plant extracts tested were efficient in reducing lesion severity on the inflorescences. The garlic, ginger and eucalyptus extracts  gave   the   best  results,  significantly  reducing lesion diameter (Figure 1).

 

 

The first symptoms started to appear three days after inoculation, the final assessment was made seven days after the first symptoms were manifested and was characterised as circular, dark brown necrotic lesions around the inoculation location (Figure 2).

 

 

Disease control using plant extracts has been shown in other pathogen systems. Cinnamon essential oil sprayed on papaya plants maintained low lesion percentage on leaves for up to 14 days after inoculation with Corynespora cassiicola; but when it was applied after the start of infection, it could not control the disease (Bitu et al., 2016).

Eucalyptus and citronella essential oils reduced severity of lemon grass rust, but the efficiency of treatments with essential oils was directly related to the environmental conditions and the characteristics of the pathogen system involved (Lorenzettiet al., 2012).

The results of the in vitro test with C. gloesporioides in H. rostrata showed that all the extracts tested were efficient in reducing the lesion severity on the inflorescences (Figure 1), but the cinnamon and ginger extracts gave the best results, significantly reducing the lesion diameter.

Similar results were reported by Itako et al. (2008) who assessed the protective effect of root aqueous extracts (EBAs) of the medicinal plants, Achillea millefolium (yarrow), Artemisia camphorata (camphor), C. citratus (lemon grass) and Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) against Alternaria solani in tomato plants in a greenhouse. A significant reduction was observed in the number of lesions compared to the control and the extracts had a systemic effect.

Other examples have been reported, such as control of brown spot (Bipolaris sorokiniana) in wheat, using camphor aqueous extract (Artemisia camphorata) (Franzeneret al., 2003), tomato plant oidium (Oidium lycopersici) by Azadirachta indica emulsion oil (Carneiro, 2003), of anthracnose (C. lagenarium) in cucumber by C. citriodora extract (Bonaldoet al., 2004) and white mold (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) in lettuce by Z. officinale (Rodrigues et al., 2007); indicating that plant extracts and vegetable oils are promising alternatives for use in plant disease control.

Plant extracts produce biologically active substances, that influence the metabolism of a determined organism and they act by contact or systemically triggering metabollic pathways. According to Schwan-Estrada and Stangarlin (2005) root plant extracts and/or essential oil actions include direct anti-fungal action, physiological alterations in the plant, or by inducing enzymes related to the pathogenesis, phytoalexins, and leaf lignification. Therefore, fractioning the metabolites of these plants and determining the biological activity of these molecules in relation to the elicitory or antimicrobial activity may contribute to greater understanding that reinforces their possible   use  as  an alternative method for plant disease control (Schwan-Estrada et al., 2000).

 

 

 

 


 

 


 CONCLUSION

All the extracts presented anti-fungal activity, in greater or lesser intensity, compared to the control. The garlic extract resulted in the highest mycelial growth inhibition rate. The bitter melon, ginger, mint, popcorn eucalyptus and bitter melon extracts were more efficacious, interfering in spore formation; while the ginger extract most reduced spore germination inhibiting germination tube emission. It was observed that all the plant extracts tested were efficient in reducing lesion severity in the inflorescence, showing that the use of plant extracts may be a promising alternative for managing the diseases that affect helconia post-harvest.

 


 CONFLICT OF INTERESTS

The authors have not declared any conflict of interests.

 


 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors appreciates the Maranhão Foundation for Support for Research and Scientific Development – FAPEMA for their support.

 



 REFERENCES

Alencar B, Galera V (2016). Mercado de flores atinge faturamento esperado para este ano. Revista Globo Rural, 06.

 

Almeida TF, Camargo M, Panizzi RC (2009). Efeito de extratos de plantas medicinais no controle de Colletotrichum acutatum, agente causal da flor preta do morangueiro. Summa Phytopathologica 35(3):196-201.
Crossref

 

Amadi JE, Adeleke EE, Olahan G, Garuba T, Adebola MO (2014). Effect of plant extracts on sporulation and spore germination of stored melon seed fungi. International Journal of Research-GRANTHAALAYAH 1(1):21-29.

 

Bitu PIM, Santos LVS, Rodrigues AAC, Braun H, Monteiro OS, Ferraz Junior ASL, Silva MRM (2016) Alternative control of Corynesporacassiicola in papaya seedlings and fruits by Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil. African Journal of Agricultural Research 11:1862-1871.
Crossref

 

Bonaldo SM, Schwan-Estrada KRF, Stangarlin JR, Cruz MES, Fiori-Tutida ACG (2007). Contribuição ao estudo das atividades antifúngica e elicitora de fitoalexinas em sorgo e soja por eucalipto (Eucalyptus citriodora). Summa Phytopathologica 33(4):383-387.
Crossref

 

Bonaldo SM, Schwan-Estrada KRF, Stangarlin JR, Tessmann DJ, Scapim CA (2004) Fungitoxicidade, atividade elicitora de fitoalexinas e proteção de pepino contra Colletotrichum lagenarium, pelo extrato aquoso de Eucalyptus citriodora. Fitopatologia Brasileira 29(2):128-134.
Crossref

 

BRASIL (2017). Sistema de Análise das Informações de Comércio Exterior.

 

Brito NM, Nascimento LC (2015). Potencial fungitóxico de extratos vegetais sobre Curvulariaeragrostidis (P. Henn.) Meyer in vitro. Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais, Campinas, 17(2):230-238.
Crossref

 

Carneiro SMTPG (2003). Efeito de extratos de folhas e do óleo de neem sobre o oídio do tomateiro. Summa Phytopathologica 29:262-265.

 

Celoto MIB, Papa MFS, Sacramento LVS, Celoto FJ (2008) Atividade antifúngica de extratos de plantas a Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Acta Scientiarum, Maringá 30(1):1-5.

 

Chiejina NV, Ukeh JA (2012). Antimicrobial properties and phytochemical analysis of methanolic extracts of Aframomummeleguetaand Zingiberoffcinaleon fungal diseases of tomato fruit. Journal of Natural Sciences Research 2:10-15.

 

Edgington LV, Khen KL, Barron GL (1971) Fungitoxic spectrum of benzimidazoles compounds. Phytopathology 61:42-44.
Crossref

 

Ferreira EF, São José AB, Bomfim MP, Porto JS, Jesus JS (2014) Uso de extratos vegetais no controle in vitro do Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz. coletado em frutos de mamoeiro (CaricapapayaL.). Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura 36(2):346-352.
Crossref

 

Franzener G, Stangarlin JR, Schwan-Estrada KRF, Cruz MES (2003) Atividade antifúngica e indução de resistência em trigo a Bipolaris sorokiniana por Artemisia camphorata. Acta Scientiarum 25(2):503-507.

 

Freitas LG (2008) Controle alternativo de nematóides. XLI Congresso Brasileiro de Fitopatologia. Tropical Plant Pathology 33:34-36. Suplemento

 

Itako AT, Schwan-Estrada KRF, Tolentino JR JB, Stangarlin JR Cruz MES (2008). Atividade antifúngica e proteção do tomateiro por extratos de plantas medicinais, Tropical PlantPathology 33(3):241-244.
Crossref

 

Lorenzetti ER, Conceição DM, Sacramento LVS, Furtado EL (2012). Controle da ferrugem das folhas do capim-limão [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf] com produtos naturais. Revista Brasileira de plantas medicinais 14(4):571-578.

 

Lorenzi H, Matos FJA (2002). Plantas medicinais no Brasil: nativas e exóticas, 1. ed. São Paulo: Editora Plantarum.

 

Marcondes MM, Martins Marcondes M, Baldin I, Maia AJ, Leite CD, Faria CMDR (2014) Influência de diferentes extratos aquosos de plantas medicinais no desenvolvimento de Colletotrichum gloeosporioidese de Fusarium moniliforme. Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais 16(4):896-904.
Crossref

 

Martins-Ramos, D, Bortoluzzi, R L C, Mantovani A (2010) Plantas medicinais de um remascente de Floresta Ombrófila Mista Altomontana, Urupema, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais 12(3):380-397.
Crossref

 

Menezes M, Assis SMP (2004). Guia Prático para Fungos Fitopatogênicos. 2ª ed. Recife: Imprensa Universitária, UFRPE.

 

Morais MS (2004). Efeito de dois extratos vegetais sobre o desenvolvimento de Fusarium oxysporum e da incidência da murcha em feijão vagem. Dissertação de Mestrado, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Areia.

 

Nascimento JM, Serra AP, Bacchi LM, Gavassoni WL, Vieira MC (2013). Inibição do crescimento micelial de Cercospora calendulae Sacc. por extratos de plantas medicinais. Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais 15(4):751-756.
Crossref

 

Neves MF, Pinto MJA (2015). Mapeamento e Quantificação da Cadeia de Flores e Plantas Ornamentais do Brasil. São Paulo: OCESP. 

View

 

Oliveira OR, Terao D, Carvalho ACPP, Innecco R, Albuquerque CC (2008). Efeito de óleos essenciais de plantas do gênero Lippia sobre fungos contaminantes encontrados na micropropagação de plantas. Revista Ciência Agronômica 39:94-100.

 

Rodrigues E, Schwan-Estrada KRF, Fiori-Tutida ACG, Stangarlin, JR, Cruz MES (2007). Fungitoxicidade, atividade elicitora de fitoalexinas e proteção de alface em sistema de cultivo orgânico contra Sclerotinia sclerotiorum pelo extrato de gengibre. Summa Phytopathologica 33(2):124-128.
Crossref

 

Sardinha DHS, Rodrigues AAC, Diniz NB, Lemos RNS, Silva GS (2012). Fungos e nematóides fitopatogênicos associados ao cultivo de flores tropicais em São Luís – MA. Summa phytopathologica, Botucatu 38(2):159-162.

 

Schwan-Estrada KRF, Stangarlin JR (2005). Extratos e óleos essenciais de plantas medicinais na indução de resistência. In: Cavalcanti LS, Di Piero RM, Cia, P.; Pascholati, SF, Resende, MLV, Romeiro, RS (Eds.) Indução de resistência em plantas a patógenos e insetos. Piracicaba: FEALQ pp. 125-132.

 

Schwan-Estrada KRF, Stangarlin JR, Cruz MES (2000). Uso de extratos vegetais no controle de fungos fitopatogênicos. Revista Floresta 30:129-137.
Crossref

 

Sebrae (2015). Flores e Plantas Ornamentais do Brasil – Serie Estudos Mercadológicos. 

View

 

Silva GS (2006). Substâncias naturais: uma alternativa para o controle de doenças. Fitopatologia Brasileira 31:9.

 

Silva JL, Souza PE, Monteiro FP, Freitas MLO, Silva Júnior MB, Belan LL (2014). Antifungal activity using medicinal plant extracts against pathogens of coffee tree. Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais 16(3):539-544.
Crossref

 

Silva MB, Morandi MAB, Paula Júnior TJ, Venzon M, Fonseca MCM (2010). Uso de princípios bioativos de plantas no controle de fitopatógenos e pragas. Informe Agropecuário 31(255):70-77.

 

Simon JM, Schwan-Estrada KRF, Jardinetti VA, Oliva LSC, Silva JB, Scarabeli IGR (2016). Fungitoxicactivity of plant extracts and comercial products against Diplocarponrosae. Summa Phytopathologica 42(4):351-356.
Crossref

 

Souza AEF, Araújo E, Nascimento LC (2007). Atividade antifúngica de extratos de alho e capim-santo sobre o desenvolvimento de Fusariumproliferatum isolado de grãos de milho. Fitopatologia Brasileira 32(6):465-471.
Crossref

 

Souza LSS, Soares ACF (2013). Extrato aquoso de alho (Alliumsativum l.) no controle de Aspergillus niger causador da podridão vermelha em sisal. Tecno-lógica 17(2):124-128.

 

Venturoso LR, Bacchi LMA, Gavassoni WL (2011). Atividade antifúngica de extratos vegetais sobre o desenvolvimento de fitopatógenos. Summa Phytopathologica 37(1):18-23.
Crossref

 

Wilson CL, Solar JM, EL Ghaouth A, Wisniewski ME (1997). Rapid evaluation of plant extracts and essential oils for antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea. Plant Disease 81(2):204-210.
Crossref

 




          */?>