This study aimed to assess the production systems of the indigenous Tswana goats reared under typical smallholder farming settings in Botswana. A total of 310 households with Tswana goats were randomly selected from five agro-ecological regions of Botswana. Key structured questionnaires were used to collect baseline data on goats' socio-economic parameters, husbandry practises, breeding and selection, disease control, flock dynamics, marketing, and extension services received. The collected data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. The findings showed no significant gender disparities in household heads. In most households (25.8%), the age of the household head fell within the range of 51-60 years. Most farmers (45.8%) kept their goats in kraals built of thorny Acacia tortilis bushes, which were cheap, easy to find, and protected the goats from predators. For 46.5% of farmers, boreholes served as their primary water source. Ethnoveterinary remedies were still used across all regions to improve goat health conditions. Several farmers (61.2%) gave supplemental feeding to minimise the effects of the drought, while others (38.8%) did so to enhance flock productivity. The study revealed poor flock management practices among smallholder farmers, as evidenced by uncontrolled breeding and poor flock records.
Keywords: Tswana goat, smallholder farmers, breeding, goat housing, communal