African Journal of
Agricultural Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Agric. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1991-637X
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJAR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 6752

Article in Press

Combining ability and heterosis estimation in elite sorghum [sorghum bicolor (l) moench] inbred lines under moisture stress areas of Ethiopia

Temesgen Begna, Techale Birhan, Taye Tadesse

  •  Received: 21 December 2021
  •  Accepted: 25 January 2022
The most important prerequisite in crop improvement is the selection of suitable parents, which could combine well and produce desirable hybrids. However, narrow genetic base, lack of potential hybrids and lack of information on the genetic components are the most important limiting factors for sorghum yield improvement. Therefore, the present study was conducted to estimate the combining abilities and heterosis for yield and its components. A total of 42 sorghum genotypes were evaluated using alpha lattice experimental design with two replications at Mieso and Kobo during the cropping season of 2019. Combined analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences due to genotypes for all studied traits over locations, which indicates the availability of substation genetic variation among genotypes. Based on general combining ability analysis, inbred line 3 and 4 were identified as best general combiners for both days to flowering and plant height traits whereas inbred line 2 and 7 were identified as best general combiners for stay green traits. The hybrid crosses 4x14, 8x15 and 11x14 were identified as best specific combiners for grain yield while hybrid 1x15 was best specific combiner for days to flowering, days to maturity, panicle length, panicle width and thousand seed weight. The estimates of general and specific combining ability revealed the preponderance of non-additive gene action since the ratio of general combining ability to specific combining ability was less than unity for all the traits under study except for plant height. The maximum grain yield was obtained from a hybrid 4x14 (6.32 tha-1) followed by hybrid 8x15(5.92 tha-1), 1x15 (5.88 tha-1), 13x14 (5.78 tha-1) and 6x15 (5.57 tha-1) with the average value of 5.0 tha-1 which had higher mean value than the mean of the parents and the check. Among the hybrids, 8x15 recorded maximum heterosis (112.41%) over the mid parents, hybrid 1x15 revealed maximum heterosis (68.71%) over the better parent whereas 4x14 recorded maximum grain yield with (30.71%) heterosis over the standard check for grain yield. Finally, based on mean yield performance, heterosis response and combining ability estimates for grain yield and its components, the hybrid crosses 4x14, 8x15, 1x15, 11x14, 11x15, 13x14 and 6x15 were found to be the most promising and potential hybrids which could be exploited commercially after critical evaluation for their superiority and yield stability across the locations over years.

Keywords: Combining ability; Heterosis; Sorghum; Hybrid; Drought