Soil cultivation events change considerable surface roughness, weaken the soil structure and the carrying capacity of soils. Soil nutrient elements classified as chemical properties for good crop growth and healthy conditions for the crops are mostly sourced from the soil. The essence of cultivation is to break down soil to a fine form to provide an ideal situation for seed germination. It causes gradual reduction in soil fertility and crop productivity. The impacts on soil nutrient concentrations vary from one site to another after cultivation. Every form of cultivation in arable land whether short or long term, intensive or continuous cultivation have effect on soil chemical, biochemical, physical, hydro-physical, biophysical and biological properties of soils. Also land use changes have contributed immensely to the decline in soil nutrients and soil structure. Cultivation using hoe followed by hand weeding with hoe is a common tillage method used by farmers in Nigeria and most of the tropical and semi-arid countries. These types of tillage systems encourage crust, surface sealing and hardpan formation. Cultivation control small annual weeds and diseases.
Keywords: Cultivation, land use, nutrient recycling, soil microbial activity, soil structure modification, Tillage