Increasing the efficiency of phosphorus (P) containing fertilizers, which are dependent on limited raw material sources, is very important for the use of sources as well as minimizing possible environmental risks. Thatâ€™s why; effects of P applied as mono-ammonium phosphate (MAP) in different forms (liquid and granule) and soil amendment containing humic acid and fulvic acid (HA+FA), on growth and P uptake of model plant bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) and vertical movement of P in soil were investigated. Application of P in the form of liquid MAP enhanced P uptake as well as shoot growth in comparison to its addition in the granule form. However, no effect of HA+FA application on neither P uptake nor plant development was found in the present research work. Although the use of soil amendment did not affect biomass yield, it had a strengthening effect on vertical movement, even for P applied as a granule. In general, the application of P in liquid form increased P movement in the soil as well as enhanced the P nutritional status of model plant wheat.
In conclusion, results of the present research paper in a supportive manner to formerly obtained limited results showed that application of P containing liquid fertilizer in comparison to granular P fertilizers together with HA+FA addition might increase the efficiency of P fertilizers; and so that enhance plant yield and minimize the environmental concerns, as well.
Keywords: Calcareous soil, fluid, granule, humic acid-fulvic acid, phosphorus, soil amendment