Seed treatment refers to the application of certain agents, physical, chemical or biological to the seed prior to sowing in order to suppress, control or repel pathogens, insects and other pests that attack seeds, seedlings or plants. One of the advantages of seed treatment is, to break and prevent from seed dormancy.Seed dormancy and germination are strongly under the control of phytohormones and the germination responses for growth regulators which depends strongly on the levels of plant growth regulators. This paper revised and discussed the common seed treatments that are used for better field establishment of the crop. Despite pre-sowing physiological, biological and chemical seed treatments for seed enhancement have a pivotal role in seed treatment technology. An experiment was conducted on different chemicals seed treatments (phytohormones, Gibberellic acid (GA), Benzyiladenine (BA) and Potassium nitrate (KNO3) by comparing with non-priming seed under light and dark environmental condition. the study reported that, higher germination rate was achieved in hormone treated seed lots imbibed in light compared to darkness, GA and KNO3 achieved the highest germination rate than BA treatments. GA had improved the germination percentage by 53% and 42% under light and dark condition respectively, compared to non primed treatment. Similarly, seed primed with KNO3 had increased the germination percentage by 44% and 33% under light and dark environmental condition respectively. On the other hand, a biological seed treatment experiment result revealed that Trichoderma was significantly affected the growth of barley seed and chlorophyll content over control treatment. Furthermore, study conducted on the effect of different levels of hot water treatment on seed borne mycoflora of three varieties of maize result revealed that, seeds treated with hot water of 50 oC gave good results for controlling seed borne fungal infections and improve germination of the seeds. Therefore, treating seed through chemical, physical and biological methods before sowing can improve the germination, growth and field establishment of the crop.
Keywords: Crop, Seed Dormancy, Germination, Seed Treatment.