African Journal of
Agricultural Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Agric. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1991-637X
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJAR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 6863

Full Length Research Paper

Phytophthora seedling blight disease of cacao and its control measures

Asare Eric Kumi
  • Asare Eric Kumi
  • Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana, Akim Tafo, Ghana.
  • Google Scholar
Ishmael Amoako-Attah
  • Ishmael Amoako-Attah
  • Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana, Akim Tafo, Ghana.
  • Google Scholar
Yahaya Bukari
  • Yahaya Bukari
  • Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana, Akim Tafo, Ghana.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 16 December 2019
  •  Accepted: 21 February 2020
  •  Published: 31 May 2020


Agrios GN (2005). Plant pathology (5th edition). USA. Elsevier Academic Press, pp. 398-402.


Bong CL, Chong TC, Lim KL, Lim GT (2000). Integrated crop management of cocoa clonal plantings for higher productivity and efficiency of crop protection in Sabah, Malaysia. In. Bong CL, Lee CH, Shari FS (Eds.), Proceedings of 3rd INCOPED International Seminar. Kinabalu, Malaysia, pp. 123-142.


Bowers JH, Bailey BA, Hebbar PK, Sanogo S, Lumsden RD (2001). The impact of plant diseases on world chocolate production. Online. Plant Health Progress. doi:10.1094/PHP-2001 0709-01-RV.


Braun AL, Supkoff DM (1994). Options to methyl bromide for the control of soil-borne diseases and pests in California with reference to the Netherlands. California Department of Pesticide Regulation. Sacramento, CA: Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Monitoring and Pest Management Branch.


Drenth A, Sendall B (2001). Practical guide to the detection and identification of Phytophthora (Version 1.0). Brisbane, Australia. CRC for Tropical Plant Protection, pp. 1-41.


Enriquez GA, Zentmyer GA (1980). Proceedings of the meeting of the American Regional Group of Phytophthora palmivora on cocoa. Turrialba, Costa Rica. CATIE. Technical Report 126:40


Erwin DC, Bartnicki-Garcia S, Tsao PH (1983). Phytophthora: Its biology, taxonomy, ecology, and pathology. St. Paul, MN, USA. APS Press 392p.


Erwin DC, Ribeiro OK (1996). Phytophthora diseases worldwide. St. Paul, MN, USA. APS Press.


Firman ID (1974). Cocoa canker. In. Gregory PH (Ed.). Phytophthora Disease of Cocoa. Longman, London. pp. 131-140.


Gregory PH, Maddison AC (1981). Epidemiology of Phytophthora on Cocoa in Nigeria. Phytopathological Paper 25:23-26.


Guest D (2007). Black pod: Diverse pathogens with a global impact on cocoa yield. Phytopathology 97:1650-1653.


Lim TM (1980). A forecasting system for use in the chemical control of Phytophthora leaf fall on plantation rubber in Malaysia. Paper presented at workshop on Phytophthora diseases on tropical cultivated plants, Kerala, India.


Nur' Aini F, Santoso TI, Sudarsianto S (2016). Application of copper fungicide and row covers to control Phytophthora seedling blight disease on cocoa. Pelita Perkebunan 32(2):101-108.


Okaisabor EK (1971). The mechanism of initiation of Phytophthora pod rot epiphytotoics. Proceedings of the 3rd International Cocoa Research Conference. Accra, Ghana. pp. 398-404.


Opoku IY, Appiah AA, Akrofi AY, Owusu GK (2000). Phytophthora megakarya: a potential threat to the cocoa industry in Ghana. Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science 33:237-248.


Opoku IY, Assuah MK, Aneani F (2007). Management of black pod disease of cocoa with reduced number of fungicide application and crop sanitation. African Journal of Agricultural Research 2(2):601-604.


Opoku IY (2004). Field and laboratory characterization of Phytophthora palmivora and Phytophthora megakarya in Ghana. Technical Bulletin No. 15. Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana, Akim-Tafo 24 p.


Opoku-Ameyaw K, Baah F, Gyedu-Akoto E, Anchirinah V, Dzahini-Obiatey HK, Cudjoe AR, Aquaye S, Opoku SY (2010). Cocoa Manual: A source book on cocoa production (1st Edition). Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana, Akim-Tafo, pp. 14-19.


Peter PK, Chandramohanan R (2011). Occurrence and distribution of cocoa (Theobroma cocoa, L.) diseases in India. Journal of Research ANGRAU 39:44-50.


Peter PK, Chandramohanan R (2014). Management of cocoa seedling blight caused by Phytophthora palmivora. Plant Archives 14(1):461-463.


Ploetz R (2016). The impact of diseases on cacao production: a global overview. In. Bailey BA, Meinhardt LW (Eds.). Cacao diseases. New York, USA: Springer International Publishing, pp. 33-59.


Purwantara A (2003). Epidemiology and control of Phytophthora diseases of cocoa in Java, Indonesia. Proceedings of 8th International Congress of Plant Pathology. Christ church, New Zealand. Sydney, Australia. Horticulture Australia 353 p.


Purwantara A, Pawirosoemardjo S (1990). Fluktuasi intensitas penyakit Phytophthora pada buah kakao di daerah basah. Menara Perkebunan 58:44-50.


Thanh DVT, Vien NV, Drenth A (2004). Phytophthora diseases in Vietnam. In. Drenth A, Guest DI (Eds.). Diversity and management of Phytophthora in Southeast Asia. ACIAR, Canberra, Australia, pp. 83-89.


Wang MC, Gong M, Zang HB, Hua XM, Yao J, Pang JY, Yang YH (2006). Effect of methamidophos and urea application on microbial communities in soils as determined by microbial biomass and community level physiological profiles. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B: Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes 41(4):399-413.