African Journal of
Agricultural Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Agric. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1991-637X
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJAR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 6863


Depletion of phosphate rock reserves and world food crisis: Reality or hoax?

Kisinyo Peter Oloo
  • Kisinyo Peter Oloo
  • Department of Agronomy and Environmental Science, School of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, Rongo University, P. O. Box 103-40404, Rongo, Kenya.
  • Google Scholar
Opala Peter Asbon
  • Opala Peter Asbon
  • Department of Applied Plant Sciences, School of Agriculture and Food security,Maseno University, Private Bag, Maseno, Kenya.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 04 April 2020
  •  Accepted: 23 June 2020
  •  Published: 30 September 2020


Africa Fertilizer Summit (2006). Africa Fertilizer Summit Proceedings. International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC), Muscle Shoals, Alabama, USA


Baveye PC (2015). Looming Scarcity of Phosphate Rock and Intensification of Soil Phosphorus Research. Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo 39(3):637-642.


Cordell D, Drangert JO, White S (2009). The Story of Phosphorus: Global food security and food for thought. Global Environmental Change 19(2):292-305.


Edixhoven JD, Gupta J, Savenije HG (2014). Recent revisions of phosphate rock reserves and resources: A critique. Earth System Dynamics 5(2):491-507.


Elser JJ, Bracken MES., Cleland EE, Gruner, DS, Harpole, WS. Hillebrand H, Ngai JT, Seabloom EW, Shurin JB, Smith JE (2007). Global analysis of nitrogen and phosphorus limitation of primary producers in freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems. Ecology Letters 10(12):1135-1142.


FAO (2017). World fertilizer trends and outlook to 2020. FAO, Rome.


FAO (2015). World fertilizer trends and outlook to 2018. FAO, Rome.


Heckenmüller M, Narita D, Klepper G (2014). Global Availability of Phosphorus and Its Implications for Global Food Supply: An Economic Overview. Kiel Institute for the World Economy, Hindenburgufer 66, 24105 Kiel, Germany. Kiel Working Paper No. 1897


Hellal F, El-Sayed S, Zewainy R (2019). Importance of phosphate pock application for sustaining agricultural production in Egypt. Bulletin of the National Research Centre 43(1):11. 


International Fertilizer Industry Association (2009). Annual Phosphate Rock Statistics. International Fertilizer Industry Association, Paris.


International Fertilizer Industry Association (2006). Production and International Trade Statistics. International Fertilizer Industry Association, Paris.


Jama B, Van Straaten P (2006). Potential of East African phosphate rock deposits in integrated nutrient management strategies. Annals of Brazilian Academy of Sciences 78(4):781-790.


Jasinski SM (2011). Phosphate Rock. In: Mineral Commodity Summaries. United States Geological Survey. United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.


Khabarov N, Obersteiner M (2018). Modeling Global Trade in Phosphate Rock within a Partial Equilibrium Framework. Sustainability 10(5):1550. 


Marschner H (2012). Mineral Nutrition of Higher. Third edition. Academic Publishers.


Mengel K, Kirkby EA (2001). Principles of Plant Nutrition. Kluwer Academic Publishers.


Mew MC, Steiner G, Geissler B (2018). Phosphorus Supply Chain, Scientific, Technical, and Economic Foundations: A Transdisciplinary Orientation. Sustainability 10(4):1087.


Plenet D, Mollier A, Pellerin S (2000). Growth analysis of maize field crop under phosphorus deficiency II. Radiation use efficiency, biomass accumulation and yield components. Plant and Soil 224(2):259-272.


Prud'homme M (2016). Trends in Global Phosphate Supply. In Proceedings of the 5th Sustainable Phosphate Summit, Kuming, China 20-22.


Scholz RW, Wellmer F (2013). Approaching a dynamic view on the availability of mineral resources: What we may learn from the case of phosphorus? Global Environmental Change 23(1):11-27.


Schroder SS, Cordell D, Smit AL, Rosemarin A (2010). Plant Research International, Report No. 357. Wageningen UR.


Syers JK, Bekunda M, Cordell D, Corman J, Johnston J, Rosemarin A, Salcedo I (2011). Phosphorus and Food Production. In Goverse, T., & Bech, S. (Eds.), UNEP Yearbook 2011: Emerging Issues in Our Global Environment (pp. 34-45). Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) - Division of Early Warning and Assessment.


van Kauwenbergh S (2010). World Phosphate Rock Reserves and Resources, IFDC Technical Bulletin 75. International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC), Muscle Shoals, Alabama, USA.


Van Vuuren DP, Bouwman, AF, Beusen, AHW (2010). Phosphorus demand for the 1970-2100 period: A scenario analysis of resource depletion. Global Environmental Change 20(3):428-439.


Vos G, Schenk SJ, Scheele H (2011). The phosphate balance: Current developments and future outlook. Report Number 10.2.232E, Utrecht, the Netherlands, February.


Walan P, Davidssona S, Johansson S, Hööka M (2014). Phosphate rock production and depletion: Regional disaggregated modelling and global implications. Resources Conservation and Recycling 93:178-187.


Weikard H (2016). Phosphorus recycling and food security in the long run: A conceptual modelling approach. Food Security 8(2):405-414.


World Population Forecast (2017). Retrieved 10th February, 2017. 



Ulrich AE, Frossard E (2014). On the history of a reoccurring concept: Phosphorus scarcity. Science of the Total Environment 490:694-707.