African Journal of
Agricultural Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Agric. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1991-637X
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJAR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 6711

Full Length Research Paper

Gender and age analysis on factors influencing output market access by smallholder farmers in Machakos County, Kenya

Margaret N. Mwangi
  • Margaret N. Mwangi
  • Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness Management, Egerton University, P.O. Box, 536-20115, Egerton, Kenya.
  • Google Scholar
Margaret Ngigi
  • Margaret Ngigi
  • Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness Management, Egerton University, P.O. Box, 536-20115, Egerton, Kenya.
  • Google Scholar
Wellington Mulinge
  • Wellington Mulinge
  • Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, P. O. Box, 578100-00200, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • Google Scholar


  •  Received: 24 November 2014
  •  Accepted: 10 September 2015
  •  Published: 01 October 2015

References

Adekanye T, Otitolaiye J, Opaluwa H (2009). Food and Agricultural Production in Nigeria: Some Empirical Considerations for Engendering Economic Policy for Africa. Conference Paper presented at the IAFFE Conference on Feminist Economics, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
 
Adekunle OA. Oladipo LL, Adisa FO, Fatoye AD (2009). Constraints to Youth's involvement in agricultural production in Kwake state, Nigeria. J. Agric. Ext. 13(1):102-108.
 
Agbola P, Adenaike T, Babalola A (2010). Determinants of farmers' access to output markets and the effects on income: A case study of Ikenne local government area, Nigeria. acta SATECH, 3(2):33-39.
 
Alene A, Manyong M, Omanya G, Mignouna D, Bokanga M, Odhiambo G (2008). Smallholder market participation under transactions costs: Maize supply and fertilizer demand in Kenya. Food Policy 33:318-328.
Crossref
 
Almekinders C, Louwaars N (1999). Farmer's seed production: New approaches and practices Intermediate Technology Publications, London.
 
Barett CB (2008). Smallholder Market Participation: Concept and evidence from Eastern and Southern Africa, Food Policy. 33:299-317.
Crossref
 
Bennel P (2006). Promoting livelihood opportunities for rural youth, IFAD, February 2007; WORLD BANK, World Development Report 2007: Development and the next generation, World Bank.
 
Birthal PS, Joshi PK, Gulati A (2005). Vertical coordination in high-value food commodities: Implications for smallholders. MTID Discussion Paper 81, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington DC, USA.
 
Bittinger AK (2010). Crop diversification and technology adoption: The role of market isolation in Ethiopia Thesis.
 
Cheng'ole J, Kimenye K, Mbogoh S (2003). Engendered Analysis of the Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Smallholder Dairy Productivity: Experience from Kenya: J. Sustain. Agric. 22:111-123.
Crossref
 
Chirwa W, Matita M (2012). From subsistence to Smallholder commercial farming in Malawi: A case of NASFAM commercialization initiatives. Working paper 037.
 
Davran M, Tok N (2011). Gender analysis in agricultural enterprises producing early potatoes in the Adana province of Turkey: Afr. J. Agric. Res. 6(2):376-381.
 
Doss CR (1999). Twenty-Five Years of Research on Women Farmers in Africa: Lessons and Implications for Agricultural Research Institutions; with an Annotated Bibliography. CIMMYT Economics Program Paper No. 99-02. Mexico D.F.: CIMMYT.
 
Ellis F, Bahiigwa G (2003). Livelihoods and Rural Poverty Reduction in Uganda. World Dev. 31(6):1495-1510.
 
Fafchamps M, Vargas Hill R (2005). "Selling at the Farmgate or Traveling to Market." Am. J. Agric. Econ. 87:717-734.
Crossref
 
FAO (2010). Gender and Land Rights Data Base. 
 
FAO (2014). FAO, private and public partnership model for youth employment in agriculture Experiences from Malawi, Tanzania Mainland and Zanzibar archipelago. 
 
Fletschner D (2006). Rural women access to credit: Market imperfections and intra-household dynamics. Working paper 2006-14, Evans school of public Affairs, University of Washington, Seattle
 
Fletschner D (2008). Women's access to credit: Does it matter for household efficiency? Am. J. Agric. Econ. 90(3):669-683
Crossref
 
Giacomo Z (2012). Mobile phones and Radios: Effect on transaction costs and market participation for households in Northern Ghana: J. Agric. Econ. 63(3):694-714.
Crossref
 
GOK (2002). Effective management for sustainable growth and poverty reduction. Machakos District Development Plan 2002-2008.
 
Govereh J, Jayne T, Nyoro J (1999). Smallholder commercialization, interlinked markets and food crop productivity: Cross-country evidence in eastern and southern Africa. Department of Agricultural Economics and the Department of Economics, Michigan State University (MSU).
 
Grace J (2004). Gender Roles in Agriculture; Case studies of five villages: The Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit (AREU). 
 
Gwanya T (2008). Address by the Director General at the launch of Youth in Agriculture and Rural Development on 20th June 2008, Goudini Spa, Western Cape Department of Land Affairs, Republic of South Africa.
 
IFAD (2010). Summary of the findings of the project implemented by MIJARC in collaboration with FAO and IFAD: Facilitating access of rural youth to agricultural activities: Farmers Forum Youth Session.
 
IFAD (2012). Summary of the findings of the project implemented by MIJARC in collaboration with IFAD and FAO: `Facilitating access of rural youth to agricultural activities'.
 
IFAD (International Fund for Agricultural Development) (2003). The challenge of ending rural poverty: Rural Poverty Report. Oxford University Press, Oxford. ISSN 2222-1700 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2855. 
 
IFAD (International Fund for Agricultural Development) (2010). Rural poverty report 2011: New realities, new challenges: new opportunities for tomorrow's generation. Overview. Rome.
 
Jayne TS, Milu M (2012). Land constraints in Kenya's densely populated rural areas: Implication for food policy and institutional reform.
 
Jayne T, Mukumbu M, Duncan J, Staatz J, Howard J, Lundberg M, Aldridge K, Nakaponda B, Ferris J, Keita F, Sanankoua A (2005). Trends in real food prices in six sub-Saharan African countries. Policy Synthesis No. 2, US Agency for International Development (USAID), Washington, DC.
 
Joshi PK, Joshi L, Birtha PS (2006). Diversification and Its Impact on Smallholders: Evidence from a Study on Vegetable Production. Agric. Econ. Res. Rev. 19:219-236.
 
Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS) (2012). Kenya Facts and Figures.
 
KNBS (2010). 2009 population and housing census results.
 
Lapar M, Holloway G, Ehui S (2003). Policy Options Promoting Market Participation among Smallholder Livestock Producers: A Case Study from the Phillipines. Food Policy, 28:187-211.
Crossref
 
Mabeza-Chimedza R (2009). Improving food security. 
 
Makhura M (2001). Overcoming Transaction Costs Barriers to Market Participation of Smallholder Farmers in the northern province of South Africa. PhD Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of The Requirements For The Degree of Doctorate in the Department of Agricultural Economics, Extension And Rural Development Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Pretoria.
 
Markelova H, Meinzen-Dick R (2009). Collective Action and Market Access for Smallholders: A Summary of Findings Research Workshop on Collective Action and Market Access for Smallholders 2-5 October 2006, Cali, Colombia.
Crossref
 
Martey E, Al-Hassan R, Kuwornu J (2012). Commercialization of smallholder agriculture in Ghana: A Tobit regression analysis: Afr. J. Agric. Res. 7(14):2131-2141.
 
Mathenge M, Place F, Olwande J, Mithoefer D (2010). Participation in Agricultural Markets among the Poor and Marginalized: Analysis of Factors Influencing Participation and impacts on income and Poverty in Kenya .Study report.
 
Meinzen-Dick R, Quisumbing A, Behrman J, Biermay–Jenzano P, Wilde V, Noordeloos M, Ragasa C, Beintema N (2011). Engendering Agricultural Research, Development, and Extension: IFPRI.
 
Mesfin W, Fufa B, Haji J (2011). Pattern, Trend and Determinants of Crop Diversification: Empirical Evidence from Smallholders in Eastern Ethiopia: J. Econ. Sustain. Dev. 2(8).
 
MIJARC/IFAD/FAO (2012). The Farmers' Forum Youth Session 18 February 2012. Summary of the findings of the project implemented by MIJARC in collaboration with FAO and IFAD: Facilitating access of rural youth to agricultural activities. Rome. 
 
Minot N, Hill V (2007). Developing and Connecting Markets for Poor Farmers: 2020 Focus Brief on the World's Poor and Hungry People. International Food Policy Research Institute. 
 
Mishra A, El-Osta H, Sandretto C (2004). Factors Affecting Farm Enterprise Diversification: Agriculture Finance review.
 
Munyao CM, Musiu F, Mbego J, Mburu F, Sirmah P (2013). Influence of land size on adoption of Jatropha Curcas in Yatta District, Kenya: J. Nat. Res. 3:4.
 
Narayan PK, Keshav LM (2013). Factors influencing farmers behavior in rice seed selling in the market: A case study in the Tarai region of Nepal: Agric. Food Econ. 1:14.
Crossref
 
Okezie C, Sulaiman J, Nwosu A (2012). Farm – level determinants of agricultural commercialization. Int. J. Agric. For. 2(2):1-5.
 
Olarinde L, Adepoju A, Jabaru M (2014). Climate Change, farm level adaption measures and Impacts on Crop productivity and market participation: Implications for sustainable synergy between African and European Agriculture. Paper prepared for presentation at the 88th Annual Conference of the Agricultural Economics Society, AgroParisTech, Paris, France 9-11 April.
 
Olwande J, Mathenge M (2010). Market participation among poor rural households in Kenya. Tegemeo Institute of Agricultural Policy and Development. 
 
Omiti J, Nyanamba T, Cullough E (2009). Factors influencing the intensity of market participation by smallholder farmers: A case study of rural and Peri-urban areas of Kenya: The Afr. J. Agric. Resour. Econ. 3(1):67-72.
 
Omiti J, McCullough E, Otieno D, Madelon M, Nyanamba T, Murage A (2006). Participatory Prioritization of Issues in Smallholder Agricultural Commercialization in Kenya: KIPPRA Discussion Paper No. 64.
 
Pender J, Ehui S, Place F (2006). Conceptual framework and hypotheses. In Pender, J, Place, F & Ehui, S (Eds), Strategies for sustainable land management in the East African Highlands. World Bank and International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washington, DC. 
 
Peterman A, Behrman J, Quisumbing AR (2009). A review of empirical Evidence on Gender Differences in Non-land Agricultural Inputs, Technology and services in Developing Countries. IFPRI Discussion Paper 975. Washington D.C: International Food policy Research Institute.
 
Ragasa C, Berhane G, Tadesse F, Taffese A (2012). Gender difference in access to Extension Services and Agricultural Productivity. International Food Policy Research Institute. Working Paper 49.
 
Randela R, Alemu G, Groenewald (2008). Factors enhancing market participation by small-scale cotton farmers: Agrekon 47:4.
Crossref
 
Ruhangawebare G (2010). Factors Affecting the Level of Commercialization among Cattle Keepers in the Pastoral Areas of Uganda. A Thesis Submitted to the School of Graduate Studies in Partial Fulfillment of the Award of the Degree of Master of Science in Agriculture and Applied Economics of Makerere University, Uganda.
 
Ryan JG, Spencer DC (2001). Future Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural R&D in the Semi-arid Tropics, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru (Andhra Pradesh).
 
Sati P (2012). Agricultural Diversification in the Himalaya, India: A Spatio-Temporal Analysis: Sustain. Agric. Res. 1(1):77.
 
Shepherd A, Prowse M (2009). Agricultural growth, poverty dynamics and markets: Background Paper for the Chronic Poverty Report.
 
Sichoongwe K, Mapemba L, Tembo G, Ng'ong'ola D (2014). The Determinants and Extent of Crop Diversification among Smallholder Farmers: A Case Study of Southern Province Zambia. J. Agric. Sci. 6(11).
Crossref
 
Strasberg P, Jayne T, Yamano T, Nyoro J, Karanja D, Strauss J (1999). Effects of agricultural commercialization on food crop input use and productivity in Kenya. Michigan State University International Development Working Papers No. 71. Michigan, USA.
 
Tracy-White J (2005). Rural-urban market linkages: an infrastructure identification and survey guide, FAO.
 
USAID (2005). Enhancing women's market access and promoting pro-poor growth.
 
Whitehead A, Kabeer N (2001). Living With Uncertainty: Gender, Livelihoods and Pro-Poor Growth in Rural Sub-Saharan Africa. IDS Working Paper Number 134. Brighton: Institute of Development Studies.
 
World Bank (2004). Agricultural Diversification for the Poor: Agriculture and Rural Development Discussion Paper 1.
 
World Bank (2005). Managing agricultural production risk: innovations in developing countries. Agriculture and Rural development: Washington DC.
 
World Bank (2008a). Millennium Development Goals. 
 
World Bank (2008b). Gender and Development.