African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12487

Table of Content: 12 January 2012; 11(4)

January 2012

A review of the methods used in the determination of flaxseed components

  Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is a multi-purpose crop and its consumption is beneficial for human health. The nutritional components of flaxseed are oil, protein, lignans, fiber and vitamin. The determination of the minor components is of great importance in establishing the flaxseed oil quality and their genuineness. The qualitative and quantitative determination of its constituents has been carried...

Author(s):   Wahid Herchi, David Arráez-Román, Sadok Boukhchina, Habib Kallel, Antonio Segura-Carretero and Alberto Fernández-Gutierrez.  

January 2012

Karyotypic studies of four species of the blackfly, Simulium (Diptera: Simuliidae)

  Karyotypic studies were carried out on the mitotic chromosomes from the supraoesophageal ganglia of four species of the blackfly, Simulium. The four species were Simulium alcocki Pomeroy, Simulium damnosum Theobald sensu lacto and two yet unidentified species of Simulium herein referred to as US 1 (unidentified species 1) and US 2 (unidentified species 2). A diploid number...

Author(s):   Adewale A. Sorungbe and Adegoke, J. A.  

January 2012

Activity enhancement of activating transcription factor 3 by restin, a novel melanoma-associated antigen

  Restin, a novel member of the melanoma-associated antigen super family, is cloned from differentiated leukemia cells induced by retinoic acid. Restin may interact with some transcription factors. The present study investigated the effect of restin on activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), an important protein in numerous physiological situations, using the mammalian two-hybrid system....

Author(s):   Junqing Xu, Yan Xue, Zifan Lu, Mengqi Wei, Haiyan Fu, Yong Yang, Fan Lu, Yousheng Wu and Yi Huan  

January 2012

DNA methylation and genetic diversity analysis of genus Cycas in Thailand

  10 Cycas species as well as one subspecies localized in Thailand were studied using the methylation sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) technique. 11 MSAP primer combinations were used and 720 MSAP bands were generated. The percentages of DNA methylation estimated from MSAP fingerprints were in the range of 36.05 to 57.44%. MSAP fingerprints were also used for phenogram construction and...

Author(s):   Choladda Sae-Eung, Thiti Kanchanaketu, Nitsri Sangduen and Vipa Hongtrakul,  

January 2012

Inter simple sequence repeat analysis of genetic diversity of five cultivated pepper species

This paper studied the genetic diversity of five cultivated pepper species using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis. The amplicons of 13 out of 15 designed primers were stable polymorphic and therefore were used as genetic biomarkers. 135 total clear bands were obtained, of which 102 were polymorphic bands with an average polymorphism rate of 75%. The cultivated species Capsicum annuum L. had less...

Author(s):   Ou Lijun, and Zou Xuexiao,  

January 2012

Inter simple sequence repeat analysis of genetic diversity of five cultivated pepper species

This paper studied the genetic diversity of five cultivated pepper species using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis. The amplicons of 13 out of 15 designed primers were stable polymorphic and therefore were used as genetic biomarkers. 135 total clear bands were obtained, of which 102 were polymorphic bands with an average polymorphism rate of 75%. The cultivated species Capsicum annuum L. had less...

Author(s):   Ou Lijun, and Zou Xuexiao,  

January 2012

Cloning, expression and characterisation of a novel gene encoding a chemosensory protein from Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

  Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are thought to play an important role in olfactory mediating perception, identification, transportation, and transduction of semio-chemicals. These proteins are also associated with the regulation of circadian rhythms and maturation of certain tissues or appendages. In this study, a cDNA fromBemisia tabaci encoding a CSP (GU250808), denoted BtabCSP was cloned by RT-PCR...

Author(s):   Yaofa Li, Yuchuan Qin, Zhanlin Gao, Zhihong Dang, Wenliang Pan and Guiming Xu  

January 2012

Optimized integration of T-DNA in the taxol-producing fungus Pestalotiopsis malicola

  We previously reported a taxol-producing fungus Pestalotiopsis malicola. There, wedescribed the transformation of the fungus mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.T-DNA carrying the selection marker was transferred into the fungus and randomly integrated into the genome as shown by Southern blotting. Approximately 66% of the transformants obtained a single copy of T-DNA. Conditions of...

Author(s):   Xiaoran Hao, Yuan Ji, Shourong Liu, Jiannan Bi, Qing Bi, Jiao Pan and Xudong Zhu

January 2012

Characterization of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) germplasm based on volatile and non-volatile components

  A sample of world germplasm of ginger consisting of 46 accessions was profiled for its volatile oil constituents, using gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC/MS) and grouped with three similarity coefficients, besides analyzing its pungent principles using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A total of 60 compounds were identified in the essential oil. Two of the three similarity...

Author(s):   Jaleel Kizhakkayil and B. Sasikumar  

January 2012

Efficacy of various herbicides against weeds in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

  Weeds are one of the most important factors that impose a great threat to the crop yield. In order to alleviate the weeds infestation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), the efficacy of various pre and post-emergence herbicides were tested during Rabi 2009 to 2010 at the Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Results promised that clodinafop propargyl at 0.045 kg a.i....

Author(s):   Muhammad Asif Shehzad, Muhammad Maqsood, Muhammad Anwar-ul-Haqand Abid Niaz  

January 2012

Effects of gibberellic acid on growth and photosynthetic pigments of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. under salt stress

  Today, there is emerging focus on the importance of medicinal plants that have occupied a significant position in solving the health care problems in human life. Karkade is an important medicinal plant and is used for curing various illnesses. The aim of this study was to improve growth performance by enhancing the photosynthetic pigments and enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity of Hibiscus...

Author(s):   Hayssam M. Ali, Manzer H. Siddiqui, Mohammed O. Basalah, Mohamed H. Al-Whaibi, Ahmed M. Sakran and Abdullah Al-Amri      

January 2012

Factors influencing callus induction and plant regeneration of Dahurian wildrye grass (Elymus dahuricus L.)

  Establishment of highly efficient and reproducible regeneration system would greatly influence the efforts of improvement of Elymus sp. through gene transfer technology. A suitable callus induction and efficient regeneration protocol for Dahurian wildrye grass (Elymus dahuricus L.) was developed. It consisted of 3.0 mg/L 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) or Dicamba + 1.0...

Author(s):   Ki-Won Lee#, Ochirbat Chinzorig#, Gi Jun Choi, Ki-Yong Kim, Hee Chung Ji, Hyung Soo Park, Won Hoo Kim and Sang-Hoon Lee

January 2012

Testing Paecilomyces lilacinus, diatomaceous earth and Azadirachta indica alone and in combination against cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) (Insecta: Homoptera: Aphididae)

  The efficacy of Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom.) Samson (2.3 × 109 conidia ml-1),Azadirachta indica (10 mlL-1) and the formulation of diatomaceous earth (PyriSec) (3 gL-1) was tested for the control of cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) (Insecta: Homoptera: Aphididae) both under laboratory and semi-natural conditions. All the tested treatments gave significant control of aphid;...

Author(s):   Waqas Wakil, M. Usman Ghazanfar, Yong Jung Kwon, Ehsan Ullah, Shamas-ul-Islam and Kashif Ali  

January 2012

Molecular genetic identification and extracellular laccase activity of two wild fungal isolates from Mexico

Fungal strains BM-1 and BG-2 were isolated from rotting stemwood of the Ipomoea murucoides tree. Both strains were assigned to Botryosphaeria rhodina(teleomorph)/Lasiodiplodia theobromae (anamorph) complex by the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence of Nuclear Ribosomal Unit. BM-1 produced 4.39 ±0.35 mg/mL, and BG-2 3.61 ± 0.28 mg/mL of...

Author(s): Ma. Soledad Vázquez-Garcidueñas, Israel Morales Guzmán and Gerardo Vázquez-Marrufo

January 2012

Assessing the levels of trace metal from two fish species harvested from treated waste water stored in a manmade lake Pretoria, South Africa

  The persistent problem of water scarcity with the ever increasing demand of water has necessitated the reuse of effluent in agriculture. The present study evaluated the reuse of treated waste water and bioaccumulation properties of two fish species from a manmade lake. Trace metals content of two fish species: Clarias gariepinus andCyprinus carpio and levels of trace metals from waste water in...

Author(s):   Olowoyo, J. O., Mdakane, S. T. R. and Okedeyi, O. O.  

January 2012

Oxalic acid pretreatment, fungal enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of maize residues to ethanol

  Dilute oxalic acid pretreatment was investigated as a feasible method for conversion of maize residues into sugars and subsequent production of bioethanol. Oxalic acid concentration of 200 mM for samples treated at 160°C for 10 min was found to be the best pretreatment conditions. Cellulases, mainly cellobiohydrolases fromTrichoderma reesei, recorded activities of up to 116 U/ml during saccharification of...

Author(s):   Godliving Y. S. Mtui

January 2012

Removal of heavy metals (Pb2+, Cu2+ and Cr3+) from aqueous solutions using five plants materials

  The hazardous ill effects of heavy metals on the environment and public health is a matter of serious concern. Biosorption is emerging as a sustainable effective technology. Heavy metals in water resources are one of the most important environmental problems of countries. The intensification of industrial activity and environmental stress greatly contributes to the significant rise of heavy metal...

Author(s):   Ali Shafaghat, Farshid Salimi, Mahdi Valiei, Jaber Salehzadeh and Masoud Shafaghat  

January 2012

Influence of no tillage controlled traffic system on soil physical properties in double cropping area of North China plain

  An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of tillage on soil properties in the field of maize (Zea mays L.) and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) annual double cropping region in North China Plain. Measurements were made following six years (2005 to 2010) of three tillage treatments; no till with controlled traffic (NTCT), no till random trafficking (NTRT) and conventional...

Author(s):   Rabi G. Rasaily, Hongwen Li, Jin He, Qingjie Wang and Caiyun Lu  

January 2012

Seasonal dynamics of plankton communities coupled with environmental factors in a semi arid area: Sidi Saâd reservoir (Center of Tunisia)

  In this study, we studied the influence of the physical-chemical and biological factors (bacterioplankton and phytoplankton abundances) for zooplankton dynamics in a Sidi Saâd reservoir in Centre of Tunisia. The samplings were carried out in spring, summer, autumn and winter (2005 to 2006) in the deepest station (surface, 5, 10 and 15 m). In this reservoir, the highest density of...

Author(s):   Ikbel Sellami, Samira Ben Romdahane, Wassim Guermazi, Monia El Bour, Asma Hamza, Mohammed Alaoui Mhamdi, Bernadette Pinel-Alloul, Lotfi Aleya and Habib Ayadi

January 2012

Kinetic modeling of concentrated acid hydrolysis of walnut green skin

  The overall goal of this experiment was to detect whether kinetic modeling can explain effects of temperature, acid concentration, time and solid contents on the production of glucose by concentrated acid hydrolysis of walnut green skin. For this purpose, sulfuric acid concentration of 20, 40 and 60% (w/w), processing temperature of 65, 80 and 90°C, reaction time of 120, 180 and 240 min and solid content...

Author(s):   A. Arastehnodeh, M. Ardjmand, M. A. Fanaei and A. A. Safekordi  

January 2012

Effect of olive storage period at two different temperatures on oil quality of two tunisian cultivars of Olea europea, Chemlali and Chétoui

  Chétoui and Chemlali olive fruits were stored at two different temperatures (ambient and 5°C) for different periods before oil extraction at 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days to investigate the effect of postharvest fruit storage on olive oil quality. Conventional analyses (acidity, peroxide value, specific extinction coefficient at 232 and 270 nm and fatty acid composition) and non conventional analyses...

Author(s):   Ben Youssef Nabil,#, Ouni Youssef,#, Dabbech Nizar, Baccouri Bechir, Abdelly Chedly and Zarrouk Mokhtar  

January 2012

Manganese, iron and copper contents in leaves of maize plants (Zea mays L.) grown with different boron and zinc micronutrients

  Micronutrients such as boron (B), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) play important physiological roles in humans and animals. Zn and B are the micronutrients most often deficient in maize, in Iran. A completely randomized factorial block design experiment was carried out at Fars province of Iran during thegrowing season in 2009 to evaluate the effects of Zn (0, 8, 16 and 24...

Author(s):   Farshid Aref

January 2012

Changes in the triacylglycerol content of flaxseeds during development using liquid chromatography- atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry (LC-APPI-MS)

  Changes in the composition of triacylglycerols (TAGs) of three varieties of flaxseeds (H52, O116 and P129) during development were investigated using non-aqueous reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry (LC-APPI-MS). 17 species of triacylglycerols were found and their fatty acyl composition was confirmed by fragment ions in...

Author(s):   Wahid Herchi, Hajer Trabelsi, Hamadi Ben Salah, Yuan Yuan Zhao, Sadok Boukhchina, Habib Kallel and Jonathan M. Curtis

January 2012

Modulation of heart redox status by garlic based on route of administration in rat

  We analyzed the ability of high dosage garlic administered per orally (p.o.) or via intraperitoneal (i.p.) route to act on heart antioxidant status in rats. In this organ, p.o. garlic is an antioxidant as it decreased H2O2 and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels and increased free iron level. However, it had no effect on malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) but...

Author(s):   Sonia Hamlaoui-Gasmi#, Nadia Limam#, Meherzia Mokni, Ferid Limam, Ezzedine Aouani, Mohamed Amri and Lamjed Marzouki  

January 2012

Cell number as an important variable in optimising inoculum age and size in yeast cultivation

  The growth lag phase during microbial fermentation reduced productivity and equipment efficiency. Inoculum age and size were the two important variables considered in fermentation optimisation. Previous studies investigated these two variables separately, in contrast to the orthogonal or use of response surface modelling method by recent papers. In nearly all cases, the inoculum from the late exponential or...

Author(s):   Zhenqiang Xia and Shengjun Wu

January 2012

Effects of crude polysaccharides from Purslane on fatigue induced by forced swimming

  The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of crude polysaccharides from Purslane (PFP) supplementation on fatigue induced by forced swimming in mice. 96 mice were divided randomly into four groups: Control group (CG), low-dose PFP supplemented group (PFP-LG), middle-dose PFP supplemented group (PFP-MG) and high-dose PFP supplemented group (PFP-HG). Each group contains 24 animals....

Author(s):   Chen Xiang, Zheng Xiaowei, Lou Xiaojuan, Huang Yong, Zhang Guohai, Guo Xueqi, Qian Jin, Pan Yuexian and Yang Yongping  

January 2012

High hydrostatic pressure extraction of phenolic compounds from Maclura pomifera fruits

  High hydrostatic pressure processing (HHPP) is a food processing method, in which food is subjected to the elevated pressure which is mostly between 100 to 800 MPa. HHPP is seen not only in food engineering, but also have other application areas, such as extraction of active ingredients from natural biomaterials. In this study, several extraction conditions such as two different solvents...

Author(s):   Ergin M. Altuner, Cemil Ä°ÅŸlek, Talip Çeter and Hami Alpas  

January 2012

Improvement of antioxidant potential in rats consuming feathers protein hydrolysate obtained by fermentation of the keratinolytic bacterium, Bacillus pumilus A1

  The in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of feathers protein hydrolysate (FPH), produced by fermentation with the keratinolytic bacterium, Bacillus pumilus strain A1, were evaluated. The antioxidant activities of FPH, evaluated using DNA nicking and ferrozine assays, demonstrate that FPH present an important antioxidant potential. Interestingly, the addition of this...

Author(s):   Nahed Fakhfakh, Manel Gargouri, Ines Dahmen, Alya Sellami-Kamoun, Abdelfattah El Feki and Moncef Nasri

January 2012

Isolation of taxol, an anticancer drug produced by the endophytic fungus, Phoma betae

  Phoma betae, an endophytic fungus, was isolated from the healthy leaves of Ginkgo biloba. The fungus was screened for the production of taxol on a modified liquid medium for the first time. The fungal species were identified by their characteristic culture morphology and molecular analysis. The presence of taxol was confirmed by spectroscopic: ultraviolet (UV), infrared (IR), nuclear...

Author(s):   Rangarajulu Senthil Kumaran, Yong-Keun Choi, Seongmin Lee, Hyeon Jin Jeon, Heehoon Jung and Hyung Joo Kim  

January 2012

The influence of verapamil on the inhibitory effects of corticosterone against neuropathic pain behaviors in rats

  There are many evidences which indicate that calcium channel related voltage plays an important role on the mechanism of neuropathic pain, but no strong evidence has been found yet on the role played by type-L calcium channel. The aim of this study was to evaluate this role in using a properly designed experiment. This cohort study was carried out on seven groups (eight  animals each) of male Wistar...

Author(s):   Sara Faryadian, Afra Khosravi, Hoseein Ali Safakha and Ali Rashidy-Pour  

January 2012

Multi-drug resistance and molecular pattern of erythromycin and penicillin resistance genes in Streptococcus pneumoniae

  The appearance and dissemination of penicillin resistant and macrolide resistantStreptococcus pneumoniae strains has caused increasing concern worldwide. The aim of this study was to survey drug resistance and genetic characteristics of macrolide and penicillin resistance in S. pneumoniae. This is a cross-sectional study, which was carried out on 70 samples suspected to be S....

Author(s):   Mohammad Kargar, Maryam Baghernejad and Sadegh Ghorbani-Dalini  

January 2012

Assessment of drug induced genotoxicity in gastric cancer patients

  The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and severity of chromosomal damage during chemotherapy treatment, to understand the role of chemotherapeutic agents inducing genetic damage and to understand the phenomenon of acquiring drug resistance. Blood samples were collected from gastric cancer patients receiving chemotherapy with the cytotoxic drugs epirubicin, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil, and 100...

Author(s):   Madhuri K., Vani K., Rabbani Syed, S. Jithender Kumar Naik and Khalid Alharbi   

January 2012

Comparison with Sugeno Model and Measurement Of Cancer Risk Analysis By New Fuzzy Logic Approach

  Every year thousands of human mortality from cancer is due to limitation of medical sources and unable to use the existing sources effectively. Patient losses can be reduced by using the numerical (quantitative) techniques in the system of medical and health. Cancer is the leading life-threatening disease for people in today’s world. Although cancer formation is different for each type of cancer,...

Author(s):   Atınç Yılmaz and KürÅŸat Ayan

January 2012

Bioethanol productions from rice polish by optimization of dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis

  Lignocellulose materials are abundant renewable resource for the production of biofuel from fermentative organism (Sacchromyces cervesiae). Rice polish is cheapest and abundant lignocelluloses resource and has potential to produce bioethanol. The main steps for the conversion of biomass into glucose required dilute acid pretreatment, but it also released inhibitory compounds which reduced the ethanol yield....

Author(s):   Zahid Anwar, Muhammad Gulfraz, M. Javaid Asad, Muhammad Imran, Zahid Akram, Sajid Mehmood, Abdul Rehman, Pervez Anwar and Alia Sadiq  

January 2012

Determination of forage escape protein value with in situ and enzyme techniques

  This study was carried out to compare in situ and in vitro enzyme techniques for determining estimates of forage escape proteins. Eight forages (vetch hay, wheat silage, corn silage, wheat hay, grass hay, lentil straw, triticale hay and alfalfa hay) were used as feed materials. During 70 h, incubation with enzyme method had similar escape protein values for vetch hay, wheat hay, grass...

Author(s):   M. Seker and A. Can  

January 2012

Relationship among the key enzymatic activities involved in starch synthesis and amylopectin chain distributions in developing wheat grain

  The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship among the activities of the key enzymes involved in starch synthesis and the fine structure of amylopectin in non-waxy and waxy types of wheat. Amylose, amylopectin, and starch accumulation increased continuously after anthesis and increased as a sigmoid curve during the grain filling stage. The accumulation rates showed single-peak curves and all...

Author(s):   Ying-ni Cao, Wei-guo Hu and Cheng-she Wang