African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12487

Table of Content: 13 March 2012; 11(21)

March 2012

Some progress in sexual reproduction and sex determination of economic algae

  With the rapid development of marine industry, algae as an important economic plant as well as an extremely promising energy source, is now attracting more and more attention. As a result of this, elucidating the basic physiological mechanisms of algae becomes even more urgent. Of all the fields, sexual reproduction and sex determination are basic and essential aspects. In this review, we summarized the...

Author(s):   Chen Peng, , Chen Qi-Jie, Chu Li-Ye and Shao Hong-Bo,      

March 2012

Extraction optimization of exopolysaccharide produced by Pleurotus cornucopiae SS-02 and its antioxidant activity

  The extraction parameters for Pleurotus cornucopiae SS-02 exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced during submerged culture were optimized using Plackett–Burman (PB) design and central composite design (CCD). The optimum conditions for EPS extraction were ethanol concentration of 86.97%, pH 8.99 and concentrated multiple 2.43, and the EPS production was estimated at 3.96 g/l....

Author(s):   Jianjun Zhang#, Zhaogang Sun#, Yu Tian#, Lifei Pang#, Mengshi Jia, Honghong Liu, Suqian Wu, Guoyi Wang, Li Wang, Shouhua Jia and Le Jia      

March 2012

DNA fingerprinting based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in sugarcane clones from the breeding program RIDESA

  New varieties of sugarcane are protected using morphological descriptors, which have limitations in identifying morphologically similar cultivars. Development of a reliable DNA fingerprint system for identification of new varieties would contribute greatly to the breeding of these species. Microsatellite markers are tools with great potential to generate unique genetic profiles that identify individuals...

Author(s):   Dennis Crystian Silva, Luiz Sérgio Costa Duarte Filho, João Messias dos Santos, Geraldo Veríssimo de Souza Barbosa and  e Cícero Almeida        

March 2012

Genetic diversity among four Eucalyptus species (myrtaceae) based on random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis

  Results obtained from random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of four species of the genus Eucalyptus revealed that the number of fragments amplified for each of the five studied primer varied between 13 and 14 fragments and their size ranged from 95 to 1055 bp. The total number of bands was 67, total number of monomorphic bands was 32, total number of polymorphic bands was 35,...

Author(s):   Osman, A. K., Abd El-Mageed, A. A., Tawfik, A. Q. and Mohammed, H. A.          

March 2012

An investigation of gene action on different traits of tobacco under irrigated and drought stress environment

  A diallel cross involving five Virginian tobacco genotypes were evaluated to determine the genetic behavior of tobacco genotypes across the environments. The experimental material was planted under irrigated as well as drought stress conditions. The data collected on yield and related traits revealed highly significant differences among genotypes under both sowing conditions. Graphical analysis showed that...

Author(s):   S. M. Sadeghi, E. Amiri and M. Ashouri        

March 2012

cDNA, genomic cloning and sequence analysis of ribosomal protein S4X gene (RPS4X) from Ailuropoda melanoleuca

  Ribosomal protein S4X (RPS4X) is one of the 40S ribosomal proteins encoded by theRPS4X gene. The cDNA and the genomic sequence of RPS4X were cloned successfully from giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and touchdown-PCR technology respectively, followed by sequencing and analyzing. The cDNA...

Author(s):   Fu-yan Luo, , Wan-ru Hou and Wei-ying Chen        

March 2012

Effect of methyl jasmonate and chitosan on growth characteristics of Ocimum basilicum L., Ocimum sanctum L. and Ocimum gratissimum L. cell suspension cultures

  The growth characteristics of Ocimum basilicum L., Ocimum sanctum L. andOcimum gratissimum L. cell suspension cultures treated with elicitors, methyl jasmonate and chitosan individually and in combination were studied. Methyl jasmonate and chitosan were found to enhance accumulated cell biomass when used individually, but when administered in combination there was no significant...

Author(s):  Rebecca Mathew and P. Deepa Sankar      

March 2012

Testing an induciable expression system in transgenic lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum cv. LisaBlue)

  In this present study, we established an efficient Agrobacterium-transformationsystem using an inducible expression vector co-cultivated with lisianthus leaf explants. To explore the potential application of the inducible system pJCGLOX in transgenic lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum cv. LisaBlue). Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene was employed as the target gene....

Author(s):   Qing Zhao, Jing Ji , Gang Wang , Jiehua Wang, Yuan Ma, Chao Jin, Weidang Wu and Chunfeng Guan        

March 2012

Phosphorus fractions, microbial biomass and enzyme activities in some alkaline calcareous subtropical soils

  A study was conducted to estimate different phosphorus fractions in some alkaline calcareous subtropical soils and evaluate their relationship with microbial and biochemical properties of the soils. Soil samples (0 to 15 cm) belonging to 15 soil series were collected from the agricultural fields of Potohar, northern Punjab, Pakistan in September, 2008 and analysed for P fractions and...

Author(s):   Muhammad Asghar Malik and Khalid Saifullah Khan        

March 2012

Effects of cutting frequency on alfalfa yield and yield components in Songnen Plain, Northeast China

  The productivity and quality of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is strongly influenced by cutting frequency (F). To clarify that the yield and quality of alfalfa if affected by F, an experiment was conducted on Songnen Plain in Northeast China to investigate the responses of yield components and quality to 3 cutting frequencies (F30, F40 and F60) among 3 cultivars (C) (Longmu, Aohan, Zhaodong)....

Author(s):   Ji-shan Chen, Fen-lan Tang, Rui-fen Zhu ,Chao Gao, Gui-li Di and Yue-xue Zhang      

March 2012

Survey of root rot of groundnut in rainfed areas of Punjab, Pakistan

  To monitor root rot disease of groundnut, a survey was carried in the groundnut growing areas of Attock, Chakwal, Khushab, Mianwali and Rawalpindi districts of Punjab during September and October, 2008. To assess prevalence, incidence and severity of root rot, soil and plant samples were collected from 52 locations of the earlier-mentioned districts of Punjab. The highest mean root rot incidence (63%) was...

Author(s):   Noor Zaman and Shakil Ahmed   .    

March 2012

Effect of irrigation disruption and biological nitrogen on growth and flower yield in Calendula officinalis L.

  To evaluate the effect of irrigation disruption and biological nitrogen on growth and yield of in Calendula officinalis L., an experiment was conducted as split plot at the research farm of Faculty of Agriculture of Urmia University (latitude 37.53°N, 45.08°E, and 1320 m above sea level), Urmia-Iran in 2010. Treatments including irrigation (irrigation disruption at first, second, third...

Author(s):   Fahime Shokrani, Alireza Pirzad, Mohammad Reza Zardoshti and Reza Darvishzadeh        

March 2012

Preliminary sampling of arthropod fauna of transgenic cassava in confined field trial

  Water (Basin and pitfall) and sweepnet traps were used to ascertain the population dynamics of the arthropod fauna of transgenic cassava in a confined field trial (CFT) at National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI), Umudike, Nigeria. The trial took place from August to November, in 2009 and February to July, in 2010 to identify the major arthropods associated with the crop and to monitor changes in their...

Author(s):   C. N. Ehisianya, K. C. Emeasor, T. N. C. Echendu, C. N. Egesi and E. N. A.Mbanaso        

March 2012

Comparison of the effect of liquid humic fertilizers on yield of maize genotypes in Ardabil region

  In order to investigate the response of maize genotypes against the application of two types of liquid humic fertilizers (derived from peat and leonardite), an experiment was conducted as factorial based on completely randomized block design with three replications. The main factor was included three conditions (application of peat based and leonardite based humic fertilizer, without the application...

Author(s):   Ali Mohammadpourkhaneghah, Reza Shahryari, Yousef Alaei and Babak Shahmoradmoghanlou        

March 2012

Bioinformatic analysis of coding regions of Foxl2 gene among species

  The genetic diversity of the complete coding sequence (CDS) of Foxl2 gene from 19 species, including Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, Sus scrofa, Gallus gallus, Bos taurus, Oryctolagus cuniculus, Oryzias luzonensis, Oryzias latipes, Xenopus laevis, Oreochromis aureus, Danio rerio, Trachemys scripta, Ellobius lutescens, Alligcltor mississippiensis,...

Author(s):   Liying Zhang, Xianglong Li, Rongyan Zhou And Lanhui Li        

March 2012

Genetic diversity of some Saudi barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.) landraces based on microsatellite markers

  Assessment of the genetic variability within barley landraces is fundamental for barley breeding. In this study, 16 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers were used to characterize selected six barley landraces from different cultivated regions in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) (Gizan, Bahah, Taif, Asser, Qassem and Hail). Amplification of SSRs loci were obtained for 15 primer pairs and only seven among...

Author(s):   El-Awady A. M. Mohamed , and El-Tarras A. E. Adel,        

March 2012

Effect of fire disturbances on soil respiration of Larix gmelinii Rupr. forest in the Da Xing’an Mountain during growing season

  The Da Xing’an Mountain is a key distribution area for Chinese boreal forests and is a fire-prone area. Frequent forest fires have influenced on the regional carbon cycle enormously, especially for the influence of soil respiration. Thus, understanding post-fire soil respiration is important in the study of the global carbon balance. This studychose different fire intensities burned area in 2006...

Author(s):   Wenwen Tan, Long Sun, Haiqing Hu and Xiangwei Chen        

March 2012

Modification of membrane lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activation in transgenic rice resistant to Rhizoctonia solani

  Activation of membrane lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes were investigated in transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) lines J6 and J61 expressing the rice chitinase gene (RCH10) and the alfalfa β-1,3-glucanase gene (AGLU1). Our results show enhanced resistance of both lines to Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of rice sheath blight disease. While malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly...

Author(s):   Bizeng Mao, Wei Song, Shaoyuan Chen, Xuehui Liu, Qixian Lai and Debao Li        

March 2012

Alterations in reducing sugar in Triticum aestivum under irrigated and non-irrigated condition

  This research was conducted with the objective of observing alterations in reducing sugars, which may play a part in distinguishing tolerant and susceptible genotypes. The experimental material consisted of thirteen wheat genotypes including eleven bread wheat advanced lines, one synthetic hexaploid and its durum parent. Seeds were sown in plastic pots and allowed to grow under normal irrigation for 32 days....

Author(s):   Nadia Khan and Farzana N. Naqvi        

March 2012

Determination of petroleum-degrading bacteria isolated from crude oil-contaminated soil in Turkey

  In order to establish an experimental basis for bioremediation of soil contaminated with crude oil, 33 strains of bacteria with hydrocarbon-degrading ability were isolated from the contaminated soil in Adana, Batman and Adiyaman, Turkey. The strainswere identified as Pseudomons spp., Paucimonas...

Author(s):   Esin Eraydin ErdoÄŸan, Fikrettin Åžahin and Ayten Karaca        

March 2012

High-efficiency conversion of glycerol to D-lactic acid with metabolically engineered Escherichia coli

  Escherichia coli strain CICIM B0013 was genetically engineered to efficiently produce optically pure D-lactate (higher than 99.9%) from glycerol with a minimum of by-products. When E. coli B0013-070 (DackA, Dpta, Dpps, DpflB, Ddld, DpoxB, DadhE,DfrdA) was cultivated aerobically for 9 h followed by 27 h under microaerobic fermentation, it...

Author(s):   Kangming Tian, Xianzhong Chen, Wei Shen, Bernard A. Prior, Guiyang Shi, Suren Singh and Zhengxiang Wang,      

March 2012

Effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on respiration control of state 3/4 in mitochondria from bovine heart

  Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) could availably regulate electron transport in the inner membrane of mitochondria from bovine heart when succinate as substrate and rotenone as complex I inhibitor at 37°C were used. H2S increased to a certain extent the respiratory rate of state 4. It also increased first and then decreased the respiratory rate of state 3, respiratory control ratio and ADP/O ratio....

Author(s):   Yanbin Su, , Yingkun Cheng, Dandan Wang, Fengrong Zhang, Yanwen Su and Zhengqiang Li      

March 2012

A regulatory network for human adenocarcinoma

  Human adenocarcinoma (AC) is the most frequently diagnosed human lung cancer and its absolute incidence is increasing dramatically. Our study aimed to interpret the mechanisms of human adenocarcinoma through the regulation network based on differentially expressed genes (DEGs). We used the GSE2514 microarray data to identify human adenocarcinoma differentially expressed genes. Based on these genes and...

Author(s):   Xiangrui Meng#, Peng Lu#, Yuanyuan Zhang, Hongwei Lin, Peng Xiao, Hua Bai and Qingxia Fan      

March 2012

Microbial community dynamics in diesel waste biodegradation using sequencing batch bioreactor operation mode (SBR)

  The dynamic of molecular microbial community during diesel waste biodegradation was investigated. The waste was treated in bioreactors operated in sequencing batch operation mode (SBR) in four cycles of 72 h, using optimized setpoints (pH, initial waste load, C:N ratio, aeration). Optimal conditions allowed the system to reach biodegradation of 53.3, 96.0, 76.2 and 75.0% at the end of cycles one, two three...

Author(s):   Edelvio de Barros Gomes, Flavia Lima do Carmo, Adriana Lopes, Raquel Silva Peixoto, Alexandre Soares Rosado and Nei Pereira Jr.      

March 2012

Somatic embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration of Mangifera persiciforma C.Y. Wu & T.L. Ming

  A method for somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from immature nucellus (30–40 days old after pollination) of Mangifera persiciforma C.Y. Wu & T.L. Ming has been developed. Browning and necrosis of the nucellar explants were effectively controlled by pre-treating in an antioxidant solution and by pre-culturing in liquid medium in a constant temperature shaker. The explants were...

Author(s):   Hong-Wen Li, Jian-jun Liu, Ke-Ling Chen, Jian He, Jian-Hui Wang and Xu-Feng Li      

March 2012

Biohydrolysis of Saccharum spontaneum for cellulase production by Aspergillus terreus

  Saccharum spontaneum, a wasteland weed, is utilized for cellulase production byAspergillus terreus in solid state fermentation. S. spontaneum served as good carbon source and solid support. Various process parameters including optimal nitrogen source, initial moisture level, incubation time, initial pH, incubation temperature and inoculum size were evaluated. The...

Author(s):   Umbrin Ilyas, Shakil Ahmed, Abdual Majeed and Muhammad Nadeem        

March 2012

Preliminary study for bioconversion of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) to bioethanol

  The effect of physical (subcritical water) and chemical (acid and alkali) pretreatment on conversion of lignocellulose (cellulose, hemicellulose) in water hyacinth (WH) was investigated. The highest sugar content in acid pretreated samples was observed in WH treated with 3% H2SO4 solution (up to 18.16% w/w). Alkali treatment had nearly no effect on conversion of lignocellulose in WH to sugar....

Author(s):   M. N. Eshtiaghi, N. Yoswathana, J. Kuldiloke and A. G. Ebadi        

March 2012

Phytochemical Screening and antimicrobial activity of ethanol and chloroform extract of Zizyphus nummularis Wt. & Arm.

  Zizyphus nummularis Wt. & Arm. (Family: Rhamnaceceae) has ethnomedicinal value used by the local tribe of south Orissa, India for the treatment of typhoid, dysentery and diarrhea. The ethanol and chloroform extracts from various parts of the plant stem, leaves and root were analyzed for the presence of bioactive compounds. In addition, antimicrobial activity of the extracts from various parts...

Author(s):   Rabi Prasad Bodroth and Manoja Das        

March 2012

Phytochemical and antimicrobial properties of Solanum macranthum Dunal

  Extracts of leaves, stem bark, roots and fruits of Solanum macranthum Dunal were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening for the presence of plant secondary metabolites and in vitro antibacterial and antifungal studies respectively. The results of the preliminary investigation revealed the presence of alkaloids, the steroidal nucleus, saponins, tannins, cardiac glycosides,...

Author(s):   J. O. Olayemi, E. E. Essien, E. O. Ajaiyeoba and O. Ekundayo        

March 2012

Construction of pECFP-C1- CIRP and its effect on cold-induced apoptosis in mouse NIH/3T3 cells

  Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) is suggested to be involved in protecting cells from the damage caused by cold stress. In this study, the recombinant plasmid, pECFP-C1-CIRP, was constructed and transfected into NIH/3T3 cells by lipofectamineTM 2000. The fluorescence microscopy, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot detection were done for transient and stable expression...

Author(s):   Shize Li, Yuheng Li, Jian Li, Cong Liu, Wei Yin, Qiaoxiang Zhao, Zeng Lin, Hong Ji and Huanmin Yang        

March 2012

Diversity of methanogens in the hindgut of grower and finisher pigs

  This study examined the diversity of the methanogens in the hindgut of two different weight groups of pigs and correlated it with the amount of digested organic carbon (OC) and various components of dietary fiber. Five grower (58.9 ± 1.15 kg) and five finisher (89.4 ± 0.85 kg) Duroc × Landrace × Large Yorkshire female pigs were allocated into two groups and individually housed in...

Author(s):   Zhen Cao, Xin Di Liao, Juan Boo Liang, Yin Bao Wu and Bin Yu        

March 2012

Growth characteristics and productivity of tall fescue new variety ‘Purumi’ in South Korea

  A new tall fescue variety (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) named ‘Purumi’ was developed by the National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, South Korea from 1999 to 2007. For synthetic seed production of this new variety, 5 superior clones: EFa9108, EFa0010, EFa0020, EFa0108 and EFa0202were selected and polycrossed. The agronomic growth characteristics and...

Author(s):   Sang-Hoon Lee, Ki-Won Lee, Hee Chung Ji, Ki-Yong Kim, Hyung Soo Park,Young Chul Lim and Gi Jun Choi