African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12487

Table of Content: 15 March 2012; 11(22)

March 2012

Boron stresses and tolerance in citrus

  Boron (B) deficiency and toxicity are widespread problems in many agricultural crops, including citrus. Boron stresses affect the normal growth and development of citrus plants, and cause impairments of cellular functions and physiological processes in citrus plants. There has been significant progress in our understanding of the physiological responses and the tolerance of citrus plants to B stresses during...

Author(s):   Li-Song Chen,, Shuang Han, Yi-Ping Qi and Lin-Tong Yang      

March 2012

Patterns of trait associations in various wheat populations under different growth environments

  Five wheat populations were investigated for two years to explore the pattern of trait associations and their contribution to grain yield. The correlation pattern between two traits and their association with grain yield was similar in CIMMYT and Pakistani germplasm. Indian germplasm had different pattern of trait association from those of CIMMYT and Pakistani germplasm. The number of kernels per plant,...

Author(s):   Muhammad Sajjad, Sultan Habibullah Khan, and Abdus Salam Khan        

March 2012

Lack of association between two ACE gene polymorphisms (rs4291 and Alu I/D) and late onset Alzheimer’s disease

  Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a prevalent disorder and the most common cause of dementia in elderly populations. Genetic and environmental factors together play a role in developing late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). According to the recent published papers, ACE is one of the candidate susceptibility genes for LOAD. In this study, allele and genotype frequencies for rs4291...

Author(s):   Parvin Yenki, Zahra Safari and Cyrus Azimi        

March 2012

Analysis of genetic polymorphism of nine short tandem repeat loci in Chinese Han population of Henan province

  This study was carried out to investigate the genetic polymorphism of nine short tandem repeat (STR) loci including D2S1772, D6S1043, D7S3048, D8S1132, D11S2368, D12S391, D13S325, D18S1364 and D22GATA198B05 in Chinese Han population of Henan province and to assess its value in forensic science. Genomic DNA was extracted by means of phenol-chloroform from 212 blood samples of unrelated healthy individuals in...

Author(s):   Yanmei Huang, Yingjie Qi, Jingzhuan Xi, Yumei Lin, Liu Yang, Zhaoshu Zeng, Xiangyang Liu, Liwei Guo and Lili Gao      

March 2012

Cloning, high-level expression, purification and characterization of a staphylokinase variant, SakfC, from Staphylococcus aureus QT08 in Escherichia coli BL21

  The staphylokinase (Sak) is emerging as an important thrombolytic agent for the treatment of patients suffering from cardiovascular disease. Hence in this study, wereported the cloning, high-level expression, purification and characterization of the Sak variant SakfC from Staphylococcus aureus QT08 in Escherichia coli Bl21. The sakgene of 489 bp...

Author(s):   Thi Hien Trang Nguyen and Dinh Thi Quyen        

March 2012

Comparison of ompP5 sequence-based typing and pulsed-filed gel electrophoresis for genotyping of Haemophilus parasuis

  In this study, comparison of the outer membrane protein P5 gene (ompP5) sequence-based typing with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for the genotyping of Haemophilus parasuis, the 15 serovar reference strains and 43 isolates were investigated. When comparing the two methods, 31 ompP5 sequence types (STs) and 43 PFGE types were...

Author(s):   Bin Zhang#, Chenggang Xu#, Jianmin Zhang, Lingyun Zhang, Lili Guo, Saixiang Feng and Ming Liao        

March 2012

Genetic variation patterns of Medicago ruthenica populations from Northern China

  As a promising legume for forage in arid and semi-arid areas, Medicago ruthenica (L.) Trautv. is widely distributed in northern China. For this study, twenty four accessions from northern China were analyzed by allozyme and microsatellites markers to determine its genetic variation patterns, two assays were found different in the amounts of polymorphism. Higher amounts of polymorphism were...

Author(s):   RONG Yu-ping, CAO Zhe, ZHU Ling-ling, ZHANG Yong-juan and BAI Ke-yu,      

March 2012

Organelles genome stability of wheat plantlets produced by anther culture

  Plantlets derived from in vitro culture might exhibit somoclonal variation which is often heritable, and molecular variations may be generated in vitro. Since the direction of most studies is toward nuclear genome, there is a little known about the DNA of organelles. This study was conducted to test the genetic stability of wheat organelles genomes for plantlets produced by anther culture...

Author(s):   Dhia S. Hassawi, Saida A. Abu-Mallouh, Amal A. Al-Abbadi, and Mohamad A. Shatnawi      

March 2012

The micropropagation of chrysanthemums via axillary shoot proliferation and highly efficient plant regeneration by somatic embryogenesis

  Protocols for axillary shoot proliferation and somatic embryogenesis were developed for Dendranthema × grandiflora (Ramat.) Kitamura cv. Palisade White. Shoot tips were cultured on a modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) media supplemented withbenzyl aminopurine (BA) and gibberellic acid (GA3) or BA, kinetin (Kin) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)....

Author(s):   Snježana Kereša, Anita Mihovilović, Marijana Barić, Vesna Židovec and Mario Skelin        

March 2012

Phenotypic and nuclear DNA variation in Tunisian cultivars of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.)

  The aim of this study was to assess the morphological diversity of the five most important and widely consumed Tunisian date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivarsand the possible relationship between phenotypic variation and genome size and ploidy, since polyploidy can occur in this species. Five Tunisian palm date cultivars were evaluated, based on morphological traits and nuclear DNA...

Author(s):   Héla El Ferchichi Ouarda, David J. Walker and Mohamed Larbi Khouja        

March 2012

In vitro regeneration of selected commercial Tanzanian open pollinated maize varieties

  Four Tanzanian open pollinated maize varieties namely; Kito, Situka M-1, Staha and TMV-1 were regenerated in vitro using immature zygotic embryos as ex-plants. Callus induction was achieved using Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 1, 1.5, 2 or 2.5 mg/l of 2, 4-D. Callus induction was significantly affected by the genotype of the varieties. Among the varieties...

Author(s):   Miccah Songelael Seth, Leta Tulu Bedada, Emmarold E. Mneney, Richard O. Oduor and Jesse S. Machuka        

March 2012

Comparative evaluation of the germination capability of three morphologically different wild genotypes of Corchorus olitorius L. from Northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

  Corchorus olitorius L. is a wild plant utilised as a vegetable in many parts of Africa. Wild indigenous  vegetables have been recommended to alleviate nutritional deficiencies and household food insecurity.  Efforts to domesticate and cultivate wild C. olitorius and other wild vegetables are being hampered by  seed dormancy. The main cause of dormancy in C. olitorius has been...

Author(s):   S. Mavengahama and F. B. Lewu   

March 2012

An efficient system for in vitro multiplication of Ocimum basilicum through node culture

  An efficient in vitro micropropagation system was developed for direct shoot growth ofOcimum basilicum, an important medicinal plant, using nodal explants. The excised nodes were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing two plant growth regulators (6-benzyladenine and 2-isopentanyl adenine) with various combinations and concentrations for the study of shoot induction. Addition of...

Author(s):   A. Shahzad, M. Faisal, N. Ahmad, M. Anis A. Alatar and Alwathnani A. Hend      

March 2012

Transient expression of acidic fibroblast growth factor in pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants

  Nowadays, there are many therapeutic proteins produced in different host plants in transient easy to perform, short production cycle, efficient and inexpensive. In this study, the modified pea early browning virus (PEBV) vector containing GFP and acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) was introduced into pea plants by leave injection. GFP expression was first observed in the treated leaves 8 to 10 days...

Author(s):   Yajun Fan, Wei Li, Xiaojuan Zhu and Xingzhi Wang        

March 2012

Effects of exogenous spermidine on photosynthesis, xanthophyll cycle and endogenous polyamines in cucumber seedlings exposed to salinity

  The effects of exogenous spermidine (Spd, 1 mmol·L-1) on photosynthetic characteristics, xanthophylls cycle components and endogenous polyamines levels were investigated in cucumber seedlings subjected to salt stress (75 mmol·L-1 NaCl). Chlorophyll contents and net photosynthetic rate (PN) of cucumber seedlings showed a significant decrease under salinity but an increase with exogenous...

Author(s):   Sheng Shu#, Ling-Yun Yuan#, Shi-Rong Guo, Jin Sun and Chao-Jie Liu    

March 2012

Production and evaluation of doubled haploid lines of barley via detached-tiller culture method

  This research was conducted to compare the classic (C) and detached-tiller methods (a: sterile by clip and scissors D1; b: sterile by hot water D2) for producing haploids in barley. The parental materials used in this research were F1 four genotypes ofHordeum vulgare: B1: Reihane × Legia; B2: Reihan × Igri; B3: Kavir × Igri; B4: Kavir × Legia, and the Hordeum...

Author(s):   F. Kahani, F. Bakhtiar , R. Bozorgipour , S. Hittalmani, H. R. Nik Khah and K. Zargari      

March 2012

Simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation of synthetic melanoidin

  Molasses spent wash contains melanoidin, a dark brown recalcitrant compound. It is not easily biodegraded and causes a number of problems such as reduction in photosynthetic activities and dissolved oxygen when discharged to aqueous environment. Being an antioxidant, melanoidin removal through purely biodegradation has been inadequate. Consequently, in the current study, simultaneous adsorption and...

Author(s):   Maurice S. Onyango, Vincent O. Ojijo, Aoyi Ochieng, Jacob O. Kittinya and Fred O. Otieno    

March 2012

Effects of cadmium stress on growth, metal accumulation and organic acids of Spartina alterniflora Loisel.

  A study quantifying the effects of exogenous cadmium (Cd) on growth, Cd bioaccumulation and organic acids of Spartina alterniflora was conducted. The experiment consisted of three levels of exogenous Cd2+ concentrations: 0, 50, and 200 mg/kg. Total Cd and water-soluble Cd were determined. Plant height, tiller number, spike number, electrolyte leakage rate (ELR), free proline, malondialdehyde...

Author(s):   Min-Wei Chai, Rui-Li Li, Fu-Chen Shi, Fu-Chun Liu, Xiu Pan, Di Cao and Xue Wen        

March 2012

Effects of Cr3+ and Ni2+ on the efficiency and performance of sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system

  Sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1.5 days could be used for the treatment of Ladkrabang industrial estate wastewater (LIWW) with high Cr3+ and Ni2+ removal efficiencies of 80.7 ± 17.9 and 53.5 ± 25.1%, respectively. Bio-sludge of SBR system with synthetic industrial estate wastewater (SIWW) showed the highest Cr3+ and Ni2+ adsorption...

Author(s):   Methinee Rarunroeng and Suntud Sirianuntapiboon        

March 2012

Biobleaching of wheat straw-rich-soda pulp by the application of alkalophilic and thermophilic mannanase from Streptomyces sp. PG-08-3

An alkalophilic and thermophilic mannanase from Streptomyces sp. PG-08-3 was applied to wheat straw-rich-soda pulp to check its bleaching potential. Optimum conditions for bio-bleaching of pulp were as follows: Mannanase 5 Ug-1 of pulp at pH 8.5 with temperature 55ºC that enhanced the brightness by 7.3% and reduced the kappa number by 24.6% within 4 h of incubation. Tear index (20%) and burst index (11.2%) were...

Author(s):   Preeti Bhoria, Gursharan Singh, Joginder Ram Sharma and Gurinder Singh Hoondal    

March 2012

Enhanced ethanol production from stalk juice of sweet sorghum by response surface methodology

  Sweet sorghum (sugar sorghum, Sorghum bicolor) is one kind of non-grain energy crops. As a novel green regenerated high-energy crop with high utility value, high yield of biomass, the sweet sorghum is widely used and developed in China. Stalk juice of sweet sorghum was used as the main substrate for ethanol production by aSaccharomyces cerevisiae strain because of the high content of...

Author(s):   Shihao Zhao, Binglian Wang and Xiaohui Liang        

March 2012

Effects of stabilizers and exopolysaccharides on physiochemical properties of fermented skim milk by Streptococcus thermophilus ST1

In this study, the effects of exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by Streptococcus thermophilus ST1 and stabilizers on the textural and microstructural properties attributes of fermented skim milk were investigated. ST1 had a high capacity to produce acids and EPS. Within 4.5 h, the pH dropped to 4.5, the acidity reached 0.8%, and EPS reached 65.27 mg/L. ST1 was more effective at increasing viscosity as well as...

Author(s): Tiehua Zhang, Zhuodan Zhang, Haiyang Yan , Da Li, Zhennai Yang and Mingruo Guo,

March 2012

miR-181a regulates multiple pathways in hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

  MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a class of small non-coding RNAs that play essential roles in a variety of biological processes including apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation. Altered expression of miRNAs in head and neck cancer has been reported, but the consequences of aberrant expression of specific miRNAs on cancer pathways remain vague. Therefore, it is important to identify and...

Author(s):   Nurul-Syakima Ab Mutalib, Lee Learn-Han, Shiran Mohd Sidik, Sabariah Abdul Rahman, Avatar Singh Mohan Singh and Cheah Yoke-Kqueen,      

March 2012

Physicochemical characterization and fatty acid content of ‘venadillo’ (Swietenia humilis Zucc.) seed oil

  Physicochemical properties of Swietenia humilis Zucc seed oils were determined along with its fatty acid composition, by using gas-liquid chromatography. The oil content found in the germ portion of the seeds was 45.38%. From physicochemical oil evaluations, an oil density of 0.9099 mg∙ml-1 at 28°C; a refraction index of 1.4740 at 20°C; a saponification index of 159.55 mg KOH∙g-1; a...

Author(s):   Veronica Perez-Rubio, Jose Basilio Heredia, Cristobal Chaidez-Quiroz, Jose Benigno Valdez-Torres,  Edith Salazar-Villa, Raul Allende-Molar and  Miguel Angel Angulo-Escalante        

March 2012

A fast method for large-scale isolation of phages from hospital sewage using clinical drug-resistant Escherichia coli

  With the continued emergence of multi-drug resistant genes and drug-resistant bacteria, the functions and applications of traditional antibiotics are challenged. Thus, products that can be combined with existing antibiotics or replace them are of great interest to the research and medical communities. As a natural parasite of bacteria, phages have been reconsidered for use in treating super or drug-resistant...

Author(s):   Huahao Fan,#, Zhiqiang Mi#, Junfen Fan, Le Zhang, Yuhui Hua, Lin Wang, Xiaolin Cui, Wenhui Zhang, Bo Zhang, Yong Huang, Jianbin Li, Xiaona Wang, Cun Li, Zhiyi Zhang, Xiaoping An, Xiuyun Yin, Jiankui Chen and Yigang Tong,      

March 2012

Comparison of clinical hematological changes under anesthetization in Crucian carp (Carassius auratus auratus) following treatment with local anesthetics

  The objectives of this study were to compare the clinical hematological changes under anesthetization in Crucian carp (Carassius auratus auratus) due to treatment with local anesthetics. Our data indicate  that the values declined significantly (P <  0.05) with dissolved oxygen amount after anesthetization, furthermore, the values increased significantly (P <  0.05) with blood...

Author(s):   Nan-Hung Chen     

March 2012

Food selection preference of different ages and sizes of black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon Fabricius, in tropical aquaculture ponds in Malaysia

  The investigation of food and food selection preferred by different sizes (PL15 to adult) of black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon Fabricius 1798, was carried out in tropical aquaculture ponds. Post larvae (15.2 ± 3.5 mm) and juveniles (65.2 ± 5.9 mm) foregut contains detritus (unidentified materials) followed by diatoms...

Author(s):   Abu Hena, M. K., and Hishamuddin, O.      

March 2012

Effect of montmorillonite on arsenic accumulation in common carp

  The effect of montmorillonite (MMT) on dietary arsenic (As(III)) accumulation in tissues of common carp was investigated. Growth rates and survival do not appear to be sensitive indicators of dietary As(III) toxicity under lower exposure concentration. However, the toxicity increases as As(III) exposure concentration increase, and this can be alleviated with added MMT concentration. Exposure of common carp to...

Author(s):   Zhaoxiang Han, Jiaying Li, Meng Zhang and Chunxia Lv      

March 2012

Regulation of the growth and photosynthesis of cherry tomato seedlings by different light irradiations of light emitting diodes (LED)

  The growth and photosynthetic characteristics of cherry tomato seedlings were investigated under seven light irradiations such as dysprosium lamps (white light; control, C), red light emitting diodes (LEDs) (R), blue LEDs (B), orange LEDs (O), green LEDs (G), red and blue LEDs (RB) and red, blue and green LEDs (RBG) with the same photosynthetic photon flux density (about 320 μmol m-2 s-1) for 30 days....

Author(s):   Liu Xiaoying, Guo Shirong, Chang Taotao, Xu Zhigang and Takafumi Tezuka        

March 2012

Production of biodiesel from crude neem oil feedstock and its emissions from internal combustion engines

  This study investigates biodiesel production using crude neem oil having high acid value, as a feedstock. The effects of some operating variables were ascertained and its combustion performance was assessed in an internal combustion engine. Due to its high acid value, the neem oil was processed via two step acid – base transesterification process. The first step reduced the acid level to <2...

Author(s):   Aransiola EF, Betiku E, Ikhuomoregbe DIO and Ojumu TV        

March 2012

Effect of excess dietary copper on proliferation and differentiation of the proerythroblasts and erythrocytes in rats

  This research was carried out to test the cytotoxic effects of excess copper in rats. Animals were divided into three groups, each containing five animals. Low dose (2 mg/kg) and high dose (4 mg/kg) of copper sulphate were force-fed into the animal by a stomach tube daily for 3 weeks and the third group was used as the control. At the end of each week, three animals (one of each group) were randomly...

Author(s):   Abu-Zinadah OA, Hussein HK, , Elshal MF,  and Elnaggar, MH,      

March 2012

Effect of using different levels of pistachio by-products silage on composition and blood parameters of Holstein dairy cows

  The goal of this research was to study about the effect of using pistachio hulls silage in cow's nutrition. The initial experiment was about the effect of several feed additives on chemical and fermentative characteristic of pistachio hulls silages. This experiment was designed with 5 treatments and 4 replications in each treatment in a complete randomized...

Author(s):   Aidin Rezaeenia, Abbas Ali Naserian, Reza Valizadeh and Abdolmansour Tahmasbi        

March 2012

Physiological response of rabbit bucks to prolonged feeding of cotton seed cake-based diets supplemented with vitamin E

  Sixty-four (64) weanling rabbit bucks, 5 to 6 weeks old, were involved in a 2 x 4 factorial experiment to evaluate the effects of prolonged feeding of cottonseed cake (CSC) – based diets with or without vitamin E supplementation on the physiological response of the bucks. There were eight treatment combinations comprising four CSC (0, 5, 10 and 15%) levels and two vitamin E supplementation levels (0 and...

Author(s):   Amao, O. A., Adejumo, D. O., Togun, V. A. and Oseni, B. S. A.      

March 2012

Histopathologic and apoptotic effect of nanosilver in liver of broiler chickens

  Silver nanoparticles can destroy bacteria, viruses and fungi; therefore, it is recommended as a disinfectant and can be used as a drug in the treatment of some non-curable viral disease in livestock. The aim of the present investigation was to study the effects of nanosilver induced toxicity on the liver of broiler chickens. This study was carried out on 240 one-day-old male broiler chickens...

Author(s):   Akradi Loghman, Sohrabi Haghdoost Iraj, Djeddi Ali Naghi and Mortazavi Pejman