African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12487

Table of Content: 16 April 2007; 6(8)

April 2007

Banana Xanthomonas wilt: a review of the disease, management strategies and future research directions

Banana production in Eastern Africa is threatened by the presence of a new devastating bacterial disease caused by Xanthomonas  vasicola pv. musacearum (formerlyXanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum). The disease has been identified in Uganda, Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda and Tanzania. Disease symptoms include wilting and yellowing of leaves, excretion of a yel-lowish...

Author(s): Moses Biruma, Michael Pillay, Leena Tripathi, Guy Blomme, Steffen Abele, Maina Mwangi, Ranajit Bandyopadhyay, Perez Muchunguzi, Sadik Kassim, Moses Nyine Laban Turyagyenda and Simon Eden-Green

April 2007

Expression of T4 Lysozyme Gene (gene e) in Streptococcus salivarius subsp. Thermophilus

In present study, we aimed to express T4 Lysozyme gene (gene e) in Streptococcus salivarus subsp. thermophilus to create better probiotics for poultry. The Esherichia coli plasmid, Bluescript II SK +/- harboring gene e named pL1, was converted to a new E. coli-Streptococcus sp. shuttle vector (pL2) by cloning and insertingStreptococcal replication origin of...

Author(s): Ayca S. Akinalp, Meltem Asan and Numan Ozcan

April 2007

Comparative genome analysis of trypanotolerance QTL

Certain breeds of domestic ruminants show remarkable resistance to the effects of African trypano-somosis. Unlike susceptible animals, trypanotolerant animals control parasitemia and do not show severe anaemia or production loss. Identification of trypanotolerance genes in cattle is hampered by cost and breeding time. Marked differences between inbred strains of mice in their response to T....

Author(s): Joseph Nganga, Mabel Imbuga and Fuad A. Iraqi

April 2007

Performance of wheat genotypes under osmotic stress at germination and early seedling growth stage

Sixteen wheat genotypes including local varieties were tested in completely randomized design with three repeats. Data were recorded at four different moisture levels by using polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 on germination percentage, germination rate index, shoot length, root length, fresh weight of shoot, dry weight of shoot, fresh weight of root, dry weight of root, shoot/root ratio and analysed for significance. The...

Author(s): Muhammad Rauf, Muhammad Munir, Mahmood ul Hassan, Munir Ahmad and Muhammad Afzal

April 2007

In vitro propagation of Irvingia gabonensis

An experiment was conducted on the in vitro culture of Irvingia gabonensis, a fruit tree grown in agroforestry system in West and Central Africa to explore its potential for micropropagation. Embryos excised from kernel of ripe fruits were cultured on MS medium (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) supplemented with different growth regulator at different concentration. The best result was obtained on ¼...

Author(s): Fajimi, O, Sarumi, M.B, Olayode, M.N,Gamra, E.O, Sanusi, S.I

April 2007

Regeneration of Rauwolfia vomitoria

Rauwolfia vomitoria is a fast disappearing medicinal plant in Nigeria. Evidence from this current study showed that seedlings of the species under study are best raised by vegetative propagation. From total immerse method, 80% rooted stem cuttings was observed. Drip down method had 60% rooted stem cuttings while the Quick dip method had 70% rooted stem cuttings. The maximum value obtained from the seed germination...

Author(s): Ehiagbonare, Enobahimendo Joseph

April 2007

Introduction and evaluation of the wood preservative potentials of the poisonous Sternbergia candidum extracts

The ability of Sternbergia candida (SB Candidum Mathew.) extract to suppress attack by Postia placenta (Fries) M. Larsen et Lombard (Mad 698), (a brown-rot) and Trametes versicolor (L.ex Fr.) Quel. (a white-rot) was investigated. The extract was dissolved from Sterinbergia Candidum’s bulb and leaves in 96% ethyl alcohol. Poisonous extract impregnated into wood blocks of Turkish...

Author(s): Osman Goktas, Ramazan Mammadov, Emin M. Duru, Ertan Ozen, Melda A. Colak and Ferah Yilmaz

April 2007

The antimicrobial activities of some commonly used disinfectants on Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans

The disinfectants; SavlonR, JikR, Methylated spirit and kerosene were observed for their inhibitory activities on Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. This was done by measuring the zone of inhibition of the disinfectants on the tested organisms. The results showed that Savlon was very effective at 100% concentration, as it inhibits the growth of P. aeruginosa and B. subtilis to...

Author(s): O. Awodele, P. M. Emeka, H. C. Agbamuche, and A. Akintonwa

April 2007

Microbial flora of oil-spilled sites in Egbema, Imo State, Nigeria

The microbial flora of areas with and without oil spillage within the Egbema oil field in Ohaji/Egbema of Imo State was determined by standard microbiological methods. Preliminary results show moderate biological activities in both environments studied. The average microbial population of the area with oil spillage was 3.08 x 107 cfu/g, while that of the adjoining environment was 3.14 x 107 cfu/g for bacteria....

Author(s): Okereke,  J.  N., Obiekezie, S. O. and Obasi, K. O.

April 2007

Effects of thermal treatments and germination on physico-chemical properties of corn flour

Certain physico-chemical properties including viscoelasticity, crystallinity and maltose content of corn depends on the gelatinization of starch under different treatments. Three different treatments were performed; boiling in water, steam heating, and germination. The effects of gelatinization on viscoelastic property of corn starch were measured and the morphological changes of corn after different treatments were...

Author(s): Prakash Bhattacharyya, Uma Ghosh, Hiranmay Gangopadhyay, Utpal Raychaudhuri

April 2007

Effect of different stabilizers on acceptability and shelf-stability of soy-yoghurt

The effect of cassava starch and corn starch on the consumers` acceptability and shelf- stability of soy-yoghurt was investigated. Three batches of soy-yoghurt were prepared using corn starch, cassava starch and gelatin as stabilizers, while the fourth batch served as control. All the batches were organoleptically evaluated and stored at 6 ± 2oC for 16 days and were subjected to physical examination and...

Author(s): Jimoh K. O. and Kolapo A. L.

April 2007

The mutagenic potentials of potassium bromate and some commonly used food additives

Food additives are substances added to preserve flavour or improve the taste and appearance of food. The continuous consumption of these food additives could be hazardous to human health. Food additives including sodium bicarbonate, sodium benzoate, ammonium bicarbonate and potassium bromate were subjected to the Ames Spot Forward Mutation Assay using Escherichia coli. The mutant strains of the organism were...


April 2007

Effects of Persea americana leaf extracts on body weight and liver lipids in rats fed hyperlipidaemic diet

The effects of aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of Persea americana on body weight and liver lipids in rats were studied. Male albino rats were fed a modified diet containing 0.5% cholesterol and 0.25% cholic acid to provoke hyperlipidaemia. The hyperlipidaemic rats were given 10 mg/kg body weight of either aqueous or methanolic extract of P. americana leaf daily for 8 weeks. There were no...

Author(s): B. I. C. Brai, , A. A. Odetola and P. U. Agomo

April 2007

Toxicity studies of ethanol extract of the leaves of Datura stramonium in rats

The effect of administration of ethanol extract of the leaves of Datura stramonium on some serum biochemical parameters was studied in rats to establish its safety. 50 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg doses of the extract were administered to the rats for five weeks. Parameters studied were the indices of liver and kidney function and some biochemical and hematological parameters. Feed intake, final body weight, serum AST,...

Author(s): Gidado, A., Zainab, A. A., Hadiza, M. U., Serah, D. P., Anas, H. Y. and Milala, M. A.

April 2007

Effect of cooking and soaking on physical characteristics, nutrient composition and sensory evaluation of indigenous and foreign rice varieties in Nigeria

The objective of this study is to ascertain the effect of cooking and soaking on the physical characteristics, nutrient composition and sensory evaluation of indigenous ‘ofada’ rice and foreign ‘aroso’ rice varieties in Nigeria. The two rice varieties were freshly purchased in the raw state, soaked in water and cooked. The physical characteristics, such as, length, width, weight, colour, purity,...

Author(s): Osaretin Albert T.  Ebuehi and Abosede Christiana Oyewole

April 2007

Synergistic effects of squalene and polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrate on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in rats

We have studied the synergistic effects of squalene and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA concentrate) on isoprenaline-induced infarction in rats with respect to changes in the levels of plasma diagnostic marker enzymes and myocardial antioxidant defense system. Intraperitoneal injection of isoprenaline caused a significant elevation in the levels of diagnostic marker enzymes; alanine aminotranferase (ALT), aspartate...

Author(s): N. Dhandapani, B. Ganesan, R. Anandan , R. Jeyakumar, D. Rajaprabhu, R. Anbin Ezhilan

April 2007

Prevention of the onset of hyperglycaemia by extracts of Aloe barbadensis in rabbits treated with alloxan

The ability of a home-made aqueous extract of Aloe barbadensis to prevent the onset of alloxan-induced hyperglycaemia was examined and compared with that of a factory-produced gel. Three groups of animals were administered 200 mg/kg body weight of alloxan intraperitoneally. A fourth group of animals was left uninjected.  Animals in group 2 also received a uniform administration of 1 mg/ml twice daily oral...

Author(s): Afolabi C. Akinmoladun and Oluyemi Akinloye

April 2007

The prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica among diarrhea patients in Jos, Nigeria

One hundred and fifty (150) stool samples from diarrhoeic children and adults seeking for medical attention (including hospitalized patients) in Vom Christain Hospital (VCH), Mandela Clinic (MC) Vom and Dagott Family Health Clinic (DFHC) Vom were screened for Yersinia enterocolitica infection between August 2005 and August 2006. The isolation methods adopted were direct plating on MacConkey Agar (MCA),...

Author(s): A. E. J. Okwori, G. O. A. Agada, A. O. Olabode, S. E. Agina, E. S. Okpeand J. Okopi

April 2007

Antibiotic resistance profiles and relatedness of enteric bacterial pathogens isolated from HIV/AIDS patients with and without diarrhoea and their household drinking water in rural communities in Limpopo Province South Africa

Antibiotic resistance profiles and the correlation of enteric bacterial pathogens from HIV positive indivi-duals with and without diarrhoea and their household drinking water were determined using the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion and polymerase chain reaction methods respectively. The sef gene of Salmonella enteritidis was amplified with the primer pairsefA-1 and sefA-2. The fliC gene...

Author(s): Obi C. L. , Ramalivhana J., Momba M.N.B., Onabolu B., Igumbor J.O., Lukoto M., Mulaudzi T.B., Bessong P.O., Jansen van Rensburg E.L., Green E and Ndou S

April 2007

Optimization of cellulase and β-glucosidase induction by sugarbeet pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii

The ability to produce cellulose degrading enzymes by sugarbeet pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. in liquid synthetic media with carboxymethy cellulose (CMC) as inducer was studied. Several cultural conditions were examined to assess their effect in optimizing enzymes production. Shaking cultures gave higher yields of cellulases compared with static ones. Aspargine supplement was the best nitrogen source,...

Author(s): Tarek A. A. Moussa and Nagwa A. Tharwat

April 2007

Biochemical, nutritional and haematological implications of Telfairia occidentalis leaf meal as protein supplement in broiler starter diets

Freshly harvested Telfairia occidentalis matured leaves were processed by shredding, sun drying and milling. This product thereafter referred to as T. occidentalis leaf meal (TOLM) on analyses revealed (on dry matter basis) 35.14 ± 0.44% crude protein, 9.61 ± 0.01% crude fat, 12.68 ± 0.02% crude fibre, 10.87 ± 0.02% ash, 3.21 ± 0.07 kcal/g gross energy and 31.72...

Author(s): A.O. Fasuyi and A. D. Nonyerem

April 2007

Effects of graded levels of cottonseed cake on performance, haematological and carcass characteristics of broilers fed from day old to 8 weeks of age

Cottonseed cake (CSC) has been used as a cheaper alternative to soyabean cake (SBC) in livestock feeding and a source of dietary protein. There is, however, paucity of information on its nutritive value in chickens. This study evaluated the performance, haematological and carcass characteristics of chickens in which CSC replaced SBC in a nutritional experiment. One hundred and eighty day old chicks (DOC) were fed with 5...

Author(s): G. O. Adeyemo and O. G. Longe

April 2007

Is the Dutch domesticated strain of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) a hybrid?

In a study of genetic characteristics of exotic Clarias gariepinus we obtained the animals from five hatcheries in Nigeria and sequenced 399 base pair of the cyt b gene. The results show that the exotic C. gariepinus clustered in two lineages: Clarias anguillaris (West Africa) and C. gariepinus (East Africa). First, this strain could be a hybrid between the two species since the...

Author(s): Nwafili Sylvanus Anene, and Gao Tianxiang