African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12487

Table of Content: 16 January 2012; 11(5)

January 2012

Lignocellulosics to ethanol: The future of the chemical and energy industry

  Energy and environmental issues are among the major concerns facing the global community today. Biofuel technology is now globally embraced as the promising technology to replace fossil fuels. Lignocellulosic waste biomass from forestry, agriculture and municipal sources are abundant, inexpensive and potential feedstock for bioenergy production. To initiate the cellulosic bioenergy production,...

Author(s):   Ganesh D. Saratale and Sang Eun Oh,  

January 2012

Functional diversity in plant communities: Theory and analysis methods

  Plant functional diversity in community has become a key point in ecology studies recently. The development of species functional diversity was reviewed in the present work. Based on the former original research papers and reviews, we discussed the concept and connotation and put forward a new definition of functional diversity thatrefers to the change of species functions...

Author(s):   Jin-Tun Zhang, Lihong Fan, and Min Li  

January 2012

Rapid and sensitive detection of potyvirus infecting tropical tuber crops using genus specific primers and probes

  A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay using potyvirus specific primers designed from the core of the coat protein was carried out, and a cDNA fragment of 327 bp was obtained from most of the potyviruses infecting the tropical tuber crops. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) products were sequenced and found to be derived from the expected virus. Specific cDNA probe was...

Author(s):   Binoy Babu, Vinayaka Hegde, T. Makeshkumar and M. L. Jeeva  

January 2012

Assessment of karyotypical variation among 16 populations of Thymus daenensis Celak and Thymus kotschyanus Boiss. species in Iran

  In order to study the cytological variation between Iranian native Thymus, karyotypes of two taxa (16 populations) from different geographic origins were presented. The ploidy level was different in populations belonging to T. kotschyanus (2x and 4x), but the same level was found (2x) in T. daenensis populations. According to intrachromosomal asymmetry, T. daenensis (10534)...

Author(s):   Mahdi Ziaei Nasab, Seyed Mohsen Hesamzadeh Hejazi, Mohammad Reza Bihamta, Mehdi Mirza and Mohabbat Ali Naderi-Shahab  

January 2012

Quantitative analysis of three commonly-used insect cell-specific promoters’ activities by transient and baculovirus-mediated expression

  The activities of three insect cell-specific promoters were compared and analyzed here, including the cytoplasmic Actin 3 (A3) promoter from Bombox mori (silkworm), immediately early 2 (ie2) promoter from Orgyia pseudotsugata multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (OpMNPV) and the very late polyhedrin (polh) promoter fromAutographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV)....

Author(s):   Lunguang Yao, Pengfei Jin,, Shuo Su, Hua Xu, Jian He, Li Peng, and Jingchen Sun  

January 2012

Optimization of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) RNA isolation method for real-time quantitative PCR and microarray analysis

  Quality of the starting RNA is indispensably important for obtaining highly reproduciblequantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and microarray results for all organisms as well as S. cerevisiae. Isolating RNA from yeast cells with a maximum quality was especially critical since these cells were rich in polysaccharides and proteins. The method has been optimized through...

Author(s):   Remziye Yılmaz, Oya Akça, Mehmet Cengiz BaloÄŸlu, Mehmet Tufan Öz, Hüseyin Avni Öktem, and  Meral Yücel ,  

January 2012

Detection of mutations in quinolone-resistant determining regions in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli from Saudi Arabia

  Since the use of fluoroquinolone antibiotic in clinical practice was introduced about two decades ago, quinolone-resistant E. coli strains are being isolated with increasing frequency. This study devotes to determine the resistance rate of fluoroquinolones for 112 Escherichia coli isolates from Prince Salman Hospital, Riyadh and to detect the mutations in the quinolone...

Author(s):   Mohamed Hamed Mohamed Al-Agamy and Atef Mohamed Shibl, Hesham H. Radwan      

January 2012

Enhancing the productivity of soluble green fluorescent protein through methionine-residue specific consensus approach

  Protein sequences might have been evolved against different environmental pressures, which results in non-optimum properties in their stability, activity and folding efficiency. Directed evolution and consensus-based engineering of proteins are the protein engineering principles for the re-evolution of such natural proteins exhibiting non-optimal properties. Here, we propose an approach to improve the...

Author(s):   Nagasundarapandian Soundrarajan, Selvakumar Edwardraja, Sun-Gu Lee, Hyungdon Yun, Niraikulam Ayyadurai  

January 2012

Synthesis of the human VEGF165 gene based on overlap PCR and recombinant expression in stable transfected CHO cells

  Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) are a member of a family of structurally related proteins that mediate angiogenesis, and vascular maintenance. VEGF165 is an isoform and has been studied extensively because of its potential use in therapeutic angiogenesis. In this study, we synthesized the human VEGF165(hVEGF165) gene based on overlap PCR method and recombinant expressed in...

Author(s): Jihong Zhang, Tianyun Wang, Baosheng Yang, Yan Lin and Zhaoxi Li    

January 2012

Impact of secondary metabolites and related enzymes in flax resistance and/or susceptibility to powdery mildew

  Changes in various physiological defenses including secondary metabolites, proline, total soluble protein and antioxidant enzymes were investigated in leaves and stems of 18 flax lines either resistant or susceptible to powdery mildew. The results showed that the total alkaloids content in flax stems was significantly increased in resistant lines when compared with resistant parent, but significantly...

Author(s):   Naglaa A. Ashry and Heba I. Mohamed  

January 2012

Pre-harvest calcium sulfate application improves postharvest quality of cut rose flowers

  The quality of cut rose flowers at the postharvest stage is affected by pre-harvest conditions. The present study was conducted to examine the possible involvement of calcium sulfate (CaSO4) in regulation of rose flower senescence. Roses (Rosa hybrida L.) cultivars ‘Cool Water’ and ‘Pretty Blinda’, were treated with either water or CaSO4 at 200 mg L-1 containing 0.01%...

Author(s):   Amrollah Nabigol

January 2012

Effects of spermidine, proline and carbohydrate sources on somatic embryogenesis from main root transverse thin cell layers of Vietnamese ginseng (Panax vietnamensis Ha et. Grushv.)

  The in vitro main roots transverse thin cell layers of Vietnamese ginseng (Panax vietnamensis Ha et. Grushv.) were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.0 mg.l-1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 0.2 mg.l-1kinetin and 0.5 mg.l-1 naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 30 g.l-1 sucrose and 8.5 g.l-1agar to establish embryogenic culture. The effects of...

Author(s):   Nhut, D. T. , Vinh, B. V. T. , Hien, T. T. , Huy, N. P. , Nam, N. B. , Chien, H. X.

January 2012

Cost effective slow growth in vitro conservation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) using table sugar as an alternative carbon source

  The potential of table sugar as an alternative low cost carbon source for potato in vitroconservation media at normal propagation temperature was investigated using a two factor experiment in a randomized complete block design. Three types of carbon sources: (1) white sugar, (2) brown sugar and (3) laboratory grade sucrose, were investigated using three varieties (Arka, Dutch Robijn and Tigoni). Plantlet...

Author(s):   Charles Lung’aho, George Chemining’wa, Solomon Shibairo, Margaret Hutchinson and Miriam Mbiyu

January 2012

Biological control of fusarium wilt of tomato by antagonist fungi and cyanobacteria

  Biological control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL) causing wilt disease of tomato was studied in vitro as well as under pot conditions. Dual culture technique showed that Aspergillus niger, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium sp. andTrichoderma harzianum inhibited the radial colony growth of the test pathogen. Methanol extract of Nostoc...

Author(s):   Hend A. Alwathnani and Kahkashan Perveen  

January 2012

Genome-wide analysis of 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase gene family in Arabidopsis, rice, grapevine and poplar

  Ethylene is an important hormone that is involved in a number of developmental processes and stress responses in higher plants. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACC) synthase as a key enzyme of the ethylene biosynthesis pathway, is in great need to be well studied. Though some efforts have been made to elucidate the structure, catalytic activity and evolutionary relationships of ACC...

Author(s):   Meihong Xu and Ming-Hui Wang  

January 2012

Evaluation of manuring practices on root rot disease and agronomic characters of Arachis hypogeae L.

  Field trials were conducted at a farmer’s field in Talagang (Chakwal) in 2009 to evaluate the effect of manuring on root rot disease caused by Fusarium solani and agronomic characters of groundnut (Arachis hypogeae L.). The experiment was comprised seven treatments viz. (i) Control (no amendment and no inoculation); (ii) F. solani (FS)-inoculated control; (iii) poultry...

Author(s):   Shakil Ahmed, Noor Zaman and S. N. Khan  

January 2012

Effect of potassium humate on early growth of Gobustan wheat variety

  In order to study the effect of potassium humate on germination and seedling growth of Gobustan wheat variety, an experiment was conducted in a laboratory in 2009. Effect of drought stress in levels of 0 and -0.5 MPa polyethylene glycol (PEG) on germination and seedling growth was carried out as two-factor factorial experiment on the basis of completely randomized...

Author(s):   Taregh Ghanifathi⊃, Reza Shahryari⊃ and Vahid Mollasadeghi⊃

January 2012

Effect of seed priming with ascorbic acid, salicylic acid and hydrogen peroxide on emergence, vigor and antioxidant activities of maize

  Early sowing of maize crop can contribute to increase maize yield but poor stand establishment at low temperature is the main hindrance in its productivity. Maize,being sensitive to low temperature at germination and early growth stage result into poor seedling establishment at low temperature during early spring planting. Seed priming with ascorbic acid, salicylic acid and hydrogen peroxide may...

Author(s): Ijaz Ahmad, Tasneem Khaliq Ashfaq Ahmad, Shahzad M. A. Basra, Zuhair Hasnain and Amjed Ali

January 2012

GFLV coat protein constructs based on local isolates from the Czech Republic

  Coat protein genes of grapevine fanleaf virus local strains isolated in South-Moravia, Czech Republic were sequenced, and artificial coat protein gene was designed and synthesized. It retains typical sequence features of local strains but is free of mRNA destabilizing sequences. Three variants of the synthetic gene were cloned intoAgrobacterium plant expression vector and their function was tested after...

Author(s):   Josef Vlasák, JindÅ™ich BÅ™iza, Hana Niedermeierová, Daniela Pavingerová, Aleš Eichmeier, Miroslav Baránek And Miroslav Pidra  

January 2012

Saikosaponins a and d roots concentration in five Bupleurum species from four mountains in China

  Bupleurum species are widely distributed in China and its diversity is of a potential commercial incomes. In this study, five species of the genus Bupleurum were collected in four mountains in North China areas. The saikosaponins a and d (SSa and SSd) roots concentration were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the results revealed that B....

Author(s):   L. Nyobe, J-T. Zhang and S.T. Huang  

January 2012

Physiological responses and expression of Mn-superoxide dismutase mRNA in Phascolosoma esculenta exposed to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)

  cDNA encoding Mn-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and 18S rRNA of Phascolosoma esculenta were cloned in this study. The partial MnSOD cDNA obtained consisted of 411 bp, encoded a protein of 137 amino acids and contained a MnSOD signature (DVWEHAYY). Physiological activity responses and expression of MnSOD mRNA inP. Esculenta exposed to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) for 4, 24, 48 , 96, 168 and 336 h were...

Author(s):   Li Yu-hong, Wang Ke-jian, Wu Sui-jie, Harrison I. Atagana, Wu Wen-lin and Tian Yun  

January 2012

Molecular diagnosis of recent suspected outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria

  Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an economically important viral disease of goats and sheep. It is endemic in Nigeria and was first described in West Africa in the 1940s. Clinically, PPR can be confused with other infections such as pasteurellosis or contagious ecthyma and mild strain of rinderpest in small ruminants. Effective implementation of control measures for PPR requires that a proper and rapid...

Author(s):   H. G. Ularamu, O. A. Owolodun, T. Y. Woma, B. J. Audu, G. B. Aaron, S. C. Chollom and D. Shamaki  

January 2012

Efficiency of some actinomycete isolates in biological treatment and removal of heavy metals from wastewater

  The main focus of studies and research in the field of wastewater treatment is treating wastewater without causing environmental hazards as well as getting benefits from the treated waste materials. In this regard, the aim of the current study was to isolate some actinomycete strains from Beni-Suef Wastewater Treatment Plant to studytheir capacities for biological treatment and for removal of...

Author(s):   Wael N. Hozzein, Mohammed Bastawy Ahmed and Marzouka Shaban Abdel Tawab  

January 2012

Effect of specialized combined strains on reconstituted milk reduced-fat cheese

  The reduced-fat cheese using reconstituted milk powder (CRMP) has the problems of texture and flavor because of heating and drying treatments of milk. The application of an exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing strain, as well as an adjunct strain in CRMP was investigated to address these quality issues. Volatiles of these cheeses were determined by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...

Author(s):   Weijun Wang, Lanwei Zhang and Yanhua Li    

January 2012

Biotransformation of ferulic acid to 4-vinyl guaiacol by Lactobacillus farciminis

  Continuously growing demand for natural flavors has led to a tremendous increase in biotransformation process employing microorganisms of different genera using ferulic acid (FA) as the precursor. In this study, potential of Lactobacillus farciminis (ATCC 29644) for biotransformation of FA to 4-vinyl guaiacol (4VG) was investigated. 4-vinyl guaiacol is a volatile phenol, reported to...

Author(s):   Hadiza Altine Adamu, Shahid Iqbal, Kim Wei Chan and Maznah Ismail,  

January 2012

Optimization of process parameters for the production of alkali-tolerant carboxymethyl cellulase by newly isolated Streptomyces sp. strain NEAE-D

  One hundred and forty one actinomycetes strains were isolated from Egyptian and Saudi Arabia soils and decayed rice straw samples. The isolated actinomycetes strains were screened for their cellulolytic activities on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) - containing agar plates. Streptomyces sp. NEAE-D showed the highestcarboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) activity. The...

Author(s):   Noura El-Ahmady El-Naggar and Nayera A.M. Abdelwahed  

January 2012

Acid resistance, bile tolerance and antimicrobial properties of dominant lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional “maari” baobab seeds fermented condiment

  Maari is a fermented food condiment obtained by spontaneous fermentation of seeds from the baobab tree (Adansonia digitata). Nine dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains, isolated from traditional maari fermentation were examined for their resistance to pH 2.5, their tolerance to 0.3% bile and their antimicrobial activities against pathogenic bacteria. The agar spot test was used to screen...

Author(s):   Donatien Kaboré,, Hagrétou Sawadogo-Lingani, Mamoudou H. Dicko, Bréhima Diawara and Mogens Jakobsen  

January 2012

Antioxidant activity of acetone and ethanolic leaves extracts of Hippobromus pauciflorus (L.f.) Radlk.

  This study focused on determining the antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of 70% acetone and ethanolic leave extracts of Hippobromus pauciflorus (L.f.) Radlk.The measured antioxidant properties included free radical scavenging activities against 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothizoline 6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), ferric reducing power activities, hydrogen...

Author(s):   O. S. Olorunnisola, G. Bradley and A. J. Afolayan  

January 2012

Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of peptide from sea cucumber using enzyme complex isolated from the digestive tract of sea cucumber

  In this study, an enzyme complex was derived from the digestive tract of sea cucumber. By using this enzyme complex, sea cucumber protein hydrolysis was carried out to obtain hydrolysates that have hydroxyl-radical-scavenging activity (HRSA). The hydrolytic process was monitored by HRSA and conditions for this process were optimized as follows: pH 6.5, temperature 35°C, 12 mg enzyme complex in a reaction...

Author(s):   Sai-Kun Pan, Dong-Rui Yao, Ming-Qian Zhou and Sheng-Jun Wu  

January 2012

The effect of storage and type of adhesive resin on microleakage of enamel margins in class V composite restorations

  This study compared microleakage of enamel margins in class V cavities restored with two types of adhesives at three time intervals. A total of 120 bovine incisors were randomly divided into two groups (groups 1 and 2) according to the type of the adhesive used (dentin and enamel adhesives, respectively). Then, each group was divided into three subgroups (n = 20) (subgroups 1 to 3: evaluation of microleakage...

Author(s):   Siavash Savadi Oskoee, Amir Ahmad Ajami, Soodabeh Kimyai, Mahmood Bahari, Saeed Rahimi, Parnian Alizadeh Oskoee, Elmira Jafari Navimipourand Shiva Solahaye Kahnamouii    

January 2012

Potential predictive factors of positive prostate biopsy in the Chinese population

  There are numerous arguments for the predictive factors of positive prostate biopsies differing according to race and region. This retrospective study aimed to determine predictive factors for a positive prostate biopsy in Chinese men. Data were collected from 1608 men who underwent a prostate biopsy for suspected prostate cancer. Variables analyzed included age, prostate specific antigen (PSA) level,...

Author(s):   Qiuyang Li, Jie Tang, Yanmi Li, Xiang Fei, Yan Zhang, Enhui He and Mingbo Zhang

January 2012

Quality control of optimized hepatitis B plasmid DNA vaccine

  DNA vaccination and gene therapy using plasmid DNA [pDNA] are emerging as the tools of choice for preventing and treating debilitating diseases. A crucial issue in manufacturing pharmaceutical grade pDNA is quality control to fulfill the requirements of regulatory agency for purity, potency, safety and efficacy. Among the criteria that pDNA used for vaccination needs to meet, in full integrity of the DNA...

Author(s):   Mounir M. Salem-Bekhit , Y. Jamous , Fars Al-Anazi, Mohsen Bayomi, Ibrahib Alsarrah and M. D. Fathallah  

January 2012

Antiherpetic activity of some endemic Hypericum species in Turkey

  This study was designed to investigate the antiherpetic activities of the crude methanolic extracts of the aerial parts of three species of Hypericum growing in Turkey (Hypericum neurocalycinum Boiss. & Heldr., Hypericum salsugineumRobson & Hub.-Mor. and Hypericum kotschyanum Boiss.). For this purpose, firstly, the cytotoxicity potential of the extracts against Vero cells...

Author(s):   Rüstem Duman

January 2012

Production of 1,3-propanediol by Klebsiella pneumoniae using raw glycerol from Zygosacharomyces rouxii

  The conversion of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) is an environmentally friendly biological process and has attracted great interests worldwide. Efficient utilization of raw glycerol could bring significant economic benefits for 1,3-PD production. In the present study, the glycerol broth from strain Zygosacharomyces rouxii JL2011 was first used as the sole carbon source for 1,3-PD...

Author(s):   Zheng Ma, Xuping Shentu, Yalin Bian and Xiaoping Yu  

January 2012

Adsorption study on orange peel: Removal of Ni(II) ions from aqueous solution

  Adsorption of Nickel(II) ions from aqueous solution onto a low cost adsorbent-orange peel was investigated to evaluate the effects of pH, initial nickel ion concentration and adsorbent dose on the removal of Ni(II) systematically. The optimal pH value for Ni(II) adsorption onto the orange peel was found to be 5.0. Greater percentage of metal ion was removed with decrease in the initial concentration...

Author(s):   Ferda Gönen and D. Selen Serin  

January 2012

Improving salinity tolerance of Acacia saligna (Labill.) plant by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Rhizobium inoculation

  This study was carried out to investigate the alleviation of salt stress (0, 6.25, 12.50 and 25 dS/m) on growth and development of Acacia saligna, grown in sandy loam sterile soil by using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and Sinorhizobium terangae(R), individually or in combination (AMF+R). Growth and nodulation parameters, leaf osmotic adjustment and chemical analysis were used as...

Author(s):   Amira Sh. Soliman, Nermeen T. Shanan, Osama N. Massoud and D.M. Swelim  

January 2012

The dynamics of fat, protein and sugar metabolism during walnut (Juglans regia L.) fruit development

  Walnut (Juglans regia L.) is named the “super food” in the 21st century. In this study, the 9-year-old precocious walnut cultivar ‘Xiangling’ were used to exam the developmental process, and the dynamics of fat, protein and sugar content in the fruit, and the activities of enzymes related with sugar metabolism were further determined and analyzed. The result shows that the...

Author(s):   Yongtao Li,#, Sanmei Ma#, Yongfei Wang, Xiaoli Xuan, Liqun Hou, Qingrong Sun and Keqiang Yang,#  

January 2012

Can white spot syndrome virus be transmitted through the phytoplankton→rotifer →artemia→shrimp pathway?

  The transmission of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in the aquatic environment by the pathway of phytoplankton through rotifer to artemia and shrimp was investigated. The phytoplankton Alexandrium tamarense and Alexandrium minutum were co-cultured with adult Fenneropenaeus chinensis infected with WSSV and were assayed by whole cell fluorescence in situ hybridization...

Author(s):   Guojian Jiang

January 2012

Seasonal variation effects on the composition of blood in Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana) in Saudi Arabia

  The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of seasonal variation on the haematological and biochemical parameters in adult captive wild male Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana), a group of 20 Nubian ibex was selected for the study. Haemoglobin (Hb), glucose concentration (Glu), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), total proteins (TP), albumin (Alb), globulin (Glob), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and...

Author(s):   AL-Eissa M. S., Saad Alkahtani, Al-Farraj S. A., Saud A. Alarifi, Al-Dahmash B. and Hamad Al-Yahya  

January 2012

Application of in vitro production-embryo transfer in the protection and development of lactational potential of superior cows

  This study was carried out to investigate if the technology of in vitro embryo production can be used for protection and development of milk productivity potential of the superior cattle via ablation. The ovaries of the superior cattle selected for ablation were collected immediately after slaughter. Bovine immature oocytes were then used for in vitro maturation/fertilization and the...

Author(s):   Akbar Pirestani, Mohmmad Hossein Nasr Esfahani, Sayed Morteza Hosseini, Fariba Moulavi, Mahdi Hajian, Mohsen Forouzanfar, Parvaneh Abedi, Somayeh Ostad Hosseini, and Laleh Hosseini  

January 2012

A study on correlation coefficients between fatty acids in the meat of chickens fed fatty acids (PUFAs) rich diets

  An experiment was conducted to study variations in the concentrations of fatty acids and the ratio between n-6 and n-3 fatty acid concentrations in chicken meat fed diet containing fish oil (n-3 rich), soybean oil (n-6 rich) or palm oil. The main fatty acids in broiler breast and thigh tissues were oleic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid and stearic acid. The birds fed the experimental diets containing 7%...

Author(s):   Maryam Royan