African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12487

Table of Content: 17 Apr 2012; 11(31)

April 2012

Polyploidy levels of Chinese large-flower chrysanthemum determined by flow cytometry

  Flow cytometry was used to determine the ploidy level of 405 Chinese large-flower chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) cultivars. Sixty-three cultivars are triploid, 175 cultivars tetraploid, 32 cultivars pentaploid, 46 cultivars hexaploid and 1 cultivar heptaploid. Forty-eight cultivars were then randomly selected for confirmation by chromosome-counting; the results are in agreement with...

Author(s):   Xinwei Guo, Chang Luo, Zhongyi Wu, Xiuhai Zhang, Xi Cheng, Conglin Huang  

April 2012

Characterization of the fertilization independent endosperm (FIE) gene from soybean

  Reproduction of angiosperm plants initiates from two fertilization events: an egg fusing with a sperm to form an embryo and a second sperm fusing with the central cell to generate an endosperm. The tryptophan-aspartate (WD) domain polycomb protein encoded by fertilization independent endosperm (FIE) gene, has been known as a repressor of hemeotic genes by interacting with other polycomb proteins, and...

Author(s):   Yingkao Hu, Ya Gao, Hongliang Xu, Jinyue Sun, Yaxuan Li and Yueming Yan  

April 2012

Molecular cloning and characterization of a putative OGG_N domain from the camel, Camelus dromedarius

  Reactive oxygen species (ROS) oxidize the guanine base in the DNA to 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG). This lesion, if left unrepaired, causes the transversion of G:C pair to T:A following replication. 8-oxoG is targeted by one of the DNA glycosylases, namely OGG1. Arabian camel (one humped camel, Camelus dromedarius) is adapted to live in desert climate conditions under direct exposure to endogenous and exogenous...

Author(s):   Farid Shokry Ataya, Mohammad Saud Alanazi, Dalia Fouad, HeshamMahmoud Saeed, and Mohammad Bazzi  

April 2012

Genetic map construction and quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis on growth-related traits in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

  Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) is one of the most widely distributed freshwater species in the world with important values in aquaculture, however, its quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated to growth-related traits have been rarely identified. In this study, using F2 populations derived from a cross between Purse red common carp (C. carpio var. wuyuanensis) and Xingguo red common...

Author(s):   Jun Wang, Anyuan He, Yuqing Ma, Chenghui Wang  

April 2012

Cloning and expression analysis of glutathione reductase gene from cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) treated by exogenous nitric oxide under low temperature stress

  Nitric oxide (NO) is a bioactive and multifunctional gaseous molecule signal that plays a crucial role in stress responses and mediates a variety of physiological processes in plant. Previous studies indicate that NO can reduce stress damage via regulating the activities of antioxidant enzymes including glutathione reductase (GR). In order to analyze the potential effect of cucumber GR activity on...

Author(s):   Xingwang Liu, Xiaolan Zhang, Yan Zhang, Lei Wang, Yangdong Guo, Huazhong Ren  

April 2012

Impact of crop residues on seed germination of native desert plants grown as weeds

  Allelopathy refers to an ecological phenomenon where there is plant-plant interference through release of organic chemicals (allelochemicals) in the surrounding soil environment as water leachates or root exudates. Crop residues produce allelochemicals that may inhibit seed germination of many weeds. In this study, I assessed the effect of aqueous extracts of three crop residues (radish, rocket and rhodes) on...

Author(s):   Ali El Keblawy  

April 2012

Efficient callus induction and indirect plant regeneration from various tissues of Jatropha curcas

  The Jatropha curcas is considered as an important energy plant due to the fact that its seed contains high oil content. Nowadays focus is being placed on J. curcas callus induction and plant regeneration. In this study, explants epicotyl, hypocotyl, petiole and cotyledon of 8-day-old seedlings of J. curcas were utilized for callus induction on media...

Author(s):   Zhong-Guang Li, Ming Gong, Shi-Zhong Yang and Wei-Biao Long  

April 2012

Allelopathic activities of Jasminum officinale f. var. grandiflorum (Linn.) Kob.: Inhibition effects on germination, seed imbibition, and α-amylase activity induction of Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv.

  A methanolic extract in wettable powder from the leaves of Jasminum officinale f. var.grandiflorum (Linn.) Kob. (JWP) was inhibitory to germination and seedling growth ofEchinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. weeds. The inhibition percentages on E. crus-galliseed germination treated with 500 to 8,000 ppm for 7 days was about 0 to 70%, respectively, whereas shoot...

Author(s):   Montinee Teerarak, Chamroon Laosinwattana, Patchanee Charoenying and Hisashi Kato-Noguchi  

April 2012

Segregation and expression of transgenes in the progenies of Bt transgenic rice crossed to conventional rice varieties

  b-Glucuronidase (GUS) activity bioassay, western blotting and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis demonstrated that the cry1Ab gene was closely inherited and expressed with reporter gene gus in the progenies of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) crossed to conventional rice varieties. Therefore, it is feasible using...

Author(s):   Zhonghua Wang, Chao Yu and Leyu Jiang  

April 2012

Light-sensitive features of seed germination in the invasive species Ageratina adenophora (syn. Eupatorium adenophorum) in China

  Ageratina adenophora (Crofton weed) is a noxious invasive plant in several countries and its germination features favor its invasiveness. The aim of this study was to characterize the light-sensitive seed germination of this weed. Two to five-fold higher germination was observed under light conditions than under dark conditions. Dormancy-breaking methods of low temperature pre-treatment,...

Author(s): Huimei Wang, Yong Jiang, Yanhong Li, Wenjie Wang and Zu Yuangang  

April 2012

In planta transformation of rice (Oryza sativa) using thaumatin-like protein gene for enhancing resistance to sheath blight

  Among the fungal diseases, sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn is one of the most important wide spread diseases found in all the rice plants (Oryza sativa) growing countries. The control of the disease with agricultural alternation and traditional breeding has not been successful so far. Application of fungicide is not recommended. Resistant genes which can cause immunity to the disease...

Author(s):   Gita Naseri, Mohammad Mehdi Sohani, Andisheh Pourmassalehgou and Somayeh Allahi    

April 2012

Copper and manganese content of the leaves of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) grown on different soil types

  The aim of this study was to determine the degree of copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn) uptake by pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) grown on four different soil types. The study was conducted in 2009 and 2010 under controlled conditions in a greenhouse. The experiment was set up according to a randomized block design with four treatments (soil types) in five replications. The results showed that the degree...

Author(s):   Milena Djurić, Senad Murtić, Gordana Šekularac, Nura Rešidović, Vesna Milić, Jasmina Zdravković and Ljiljana Bošković-Rakočević  

April 2012

Selection of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars for salt stress tolerance using germination indices

  To select the most tolerant alfalfa genotypes to salinity stress, an experiment wasperformed in a factorial scheme having a completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications. The cultivar and salinity stress factors comprised 20 cultivars and four levels of salinity stress (control, 75, 150 and 225 mM) with NaCl, respectively. Results indicate that a significant decrease was observed in all...

Author(s):   Asieh Soltani, Zahra Khodarahmpour, Ali Ashraf Jafari and Shahram Nakhjavan  

April 2012

Plant regeneration and stimulation of in vitro flowering in Eruca sativa Mill.

Explants such as apical buds, axillary buds, cotyledons, cotyledonary nodes, leaves, hypocotyls and immature embryonal axes from in vitro-grown plantlets were inoculated on the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 4.44 µM 6-benzylaminopurine in combination with 2.85 µM indole-3-acetic acid. Best multiple shoots formation was obtained with cotyledonary nodes. Each inoculated explant produced...

Author(s): Madan Mohan Sharma, Mukta Dhingra, Anju Dave and Amla Batra

April 2012

Estimation of coliform contamination rate and impact of environmental factor on bacterial quality of tube well water supplies in Khorramdarreh County, Iran

  In this study, the presence of fecal coliforms in tube wells of Khorramdarreh County, Iran, and impact of environmental factors on quantity and quality of these organisms were evaluated. In a cross-sectional survey, 76 tube well water samples from March to September 2010 were tested to determine presence of fecal coliforms, by measuring the most probable number...

Author(s):   Amini Bahram, Baghchesaraei Hamid and Nasiri Akram  

April 2012

Purification and characterization of three laccase isozymes from the white rot fungus Trametes sp. HS-03

  Three laccase isozymes (LacI, LacII and LacIII) were isolated from the culture supernatant solution of Trametes sp. HS-03. Diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-sepharose fast flow anion exchange chromatography and Sephadex G-100 size-exclusion chromatography was performed to achieve electrophoretic homogeneity. The molecular masses (64.2, 60.7 and 38.9 kDa), isoelectric points [pIs (7.3, 4.7...

Author(s):   Weiyun Guo, Zhaoyang Yao, Chenyan Zhou, Duan Li, Hongli Chen, Qiang Shao, Zongyi Li and Huigen Feng  

April 2012

Salinity effect and seed priming treatments on the germination of Suaeda salsa in the tidal marsh of the Yellow River estuary

  The effects of salinity and seed priming treatments (hydropriming, water, KNO3 and KH2PO3) on the germination of the euhalophyte Suaeda salsa in intertidal zone of the Yellow River estuary were investigated. Results show that the seed germination percentage decreased with increasing NaCl concentration, and at the high NaCl level (800 mM), the lowest germination percentage was recorded. At the...

Author(s):   H.L. Song, Z.G. Sun, X. J. Mou, and J.Y. Zhao  

April 2012

Screening of root nodule bacteria for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) and the study of parameters influencing the PHA accumulation

  Twelve polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) producing microbes were isolated from root nodules of 8 leguminous plants belonging to two phyla: Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. One of the isolate VK-12 of genus Burkholderia showed the highest PHA accumulation (42% wt/wt) as compared to other isolates in mineral medium. The effect of different cultural and growth conditions were studied on isolate VK-12 in...

Author(s):   Sreya Kumbhakar, Prabhat Kumar Singh and Ambarish S Vidyarthi  

April 2012

Isolation of polyvinyl chloride degrading bacterial strains from environmental samples using enrichment culture technique

  Plastic causes serious damage to the environment, both during its production and disposal. Biodegradation of plastic waste using microbial strain could offer a solution to the problem. Microorganisms have been a good resource for solution to this problem due to their diverse metabolic capability, adaptability to different environment and possibility of isolation using artificial growth media for...

Author(s):   Rajashree Patil and U. S. Bagde  

April 2012

Rapid biosynthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles using culture supernatants of Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 and Lactobacillus acidophilus DSMZ 20079T

  Cell-associated biosynthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles has been reported to be rather slow and costly. In this study, we report on a rapid and low cost biosynthesis of CdS using culture supernatants of Escherichia coli ATCC 8739,Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 and Lactobacillus acidophilus DSMZ 20079T. The synthesis was performed at room temperature in the laboratory ambience...

Author(s):   Abd El-Raheem R. El-Shanshoury, , Sobhy E. Elsilk,  and Mohamed E. Ebeid  

April 2012

Effect of X-ray irradiation on the physical and chemical quality of America red globe grape

  The use of irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment has expanded in recent years. It plays important roles in developed and developing countries, facilitating international trade in irradiated fresh fruit. To evaluate the potential of X-ray irradiation as a quarantine treatment for America red globe grapes, we investigated the effect of X-ray irradiation by 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 1.0 kGy on the physical and...

Author(s):   Fenfen Kang, Guy J. Hallman, Yadong Wei, Fanhua Zhang and Zhihong Li  

April 2012

Effective extraction of cephalosporin C from whole fermentation broth of Acremonium chrysogenum utilizing aqueous two phase systems

  The downstream processing of biotechnological products from fermentation broth is an important step of production and development of cost effective, efficient downstream processing of many biotechnological products. The present study was conducted by employing aqueous two phase systems (ATPSs) for the extraction of cephalosporin C (CPC) from whole fermentation broth of Acremonium chrysogenum. The...

Author(s):   Amina Wajid, Farnaz Malik, Shazia Shafaat, Shahzad Hussain, Ghazala Parveen, Sabeeha Roohi,  Rashid Mahmood, Rafiq A. Channa, Fahadiya Yasin Raja, Humayun Riaz, and Muhammad Ismail  

April 2012

Role of Notch-1 signaling in ethanol induced PC12 apoptosis

  Chronic alcoholic dementia has crucial role in progress of neurodegenerative disease and affects a large portion of our aging population. Neuronal cell apoptosis may be a contributing factor of neurodegenerative disease (ND) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous researches have indicated that Notch-1 signaling pathway is related with learning and memory ability. Mutations of Notch-1...

Author(s):   Yong-qiang Li, Zhen-yu Shi, Bin Liu, Chao-shen Huangfu and Wei-juan Zhang    

April 2012

Study of anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and analgesic activity of Oscillatoria annae extract in rats and mice

  The aqueous extract of the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria annae was investigated for its anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic,analgesic and cholesterol regulating properties in different experimental standard animal models. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, indomethacin (10 mg/kg/body weight) was used as standard in the anti-inflammatory, and analgesic studies, while glibenclamide...

Author(s):   Perumal Varalakshmi, Rajendran Arunkumar, Loganathan Chanthramohan, Murugan Nagarajan, Thangavelu Vinoth Babu and Nagarajan Pratheeba  

April 2012

Phytochemicals, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of a lichen species Cladonia digitata

  Antioxidant activity assessment was performed using the free radical scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and reducing power assay.Phytochemical screening was done using chemical tests. Antibacterial activities ofCladonia digitata were determined by a disk diffusion method at concentrations of 0, 10, 50 and 100% (v/v) against pathogenic bacteria, Eschericia...

Author(s):   P. Dzomba, E. Togarepi and C. Musekiwa  

April 2012

Clinical significance of RECK and MMP-9 expression in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

  Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) is recognized for its ability to promote tumor invasion and metastasis. However, its role and that of a novel regulator of MMP-9, reversion-inducing-cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs (RECK), have not been explored in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We investigated expression of MMP-9 and RECK in SCC to determine the clinical significance of their expression...

Author(s):   Qian Wu, Li-jun Hao, Jian-yu Han and Li-jun Wang.  

April 2012

Plant regeneration studies of Jatropha curcas using induced embryogenic callus from cotyledon explants

  A plant regeneration system for Jatropha curcas, a biofuel- producing plant, was established from the induced embryogenic callus. Cotyledon explants cultured on single auxin media were able to form callus. However, only the callus induced from cotyledon explants using Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 0.8 mg l-1dicamba was embryogenic. The somatic embryos were suitable to be proliferated using...

Author(s):   Tee Chong Siang, Siow Then Soong and Adeline Ting Su Yien  

April 2012

Plant regeneration studies of Jatropha curcas using induced embryogenic callus from cotyledon explants

  A plant regeneration system for Jatropha curcas, a biofuel- producing plant, was established from the induced embryogenic callus. Cotyledon explants cultured on single auxin media were able to form callus. However, only the callus induced from cotyledon explants using Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 0.8 mg l-1dicamba was embryogenic. The somatic embryos were suitable to be proliferated using...

Author(s): Tee Chong Siang, Siow Then Soong and Adeline Ting Su Yien  

April 2012

In Silico characterization of growth hormone from freshwater ornamental fishes: Sequence analysis, molecular modelling and phylogeny

  The present investigation includes in Silico sequence analysis, three-dimensional (3D) structure prediction and evolutionary profile of growth hormone (GH) from 14 ornamental freshwater fishes. The analyses were performed using the sequence data of growth hormone gene (gh) and its encoded GH protein. The evolutionary analyses were performed using maximum likelihood (ML) estimate...

Author(s):   Chittaranjan Baruah, Umesh C. Goswami and Dhirendra K. Sharma  

April 2012

Enhancement of the enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw by pretreatment with 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Amim]Cl)

  The enhancement of the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose by pretreatment is a key difficulty in biomass utilization. Wheat straw was treated with 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Amim]Cl), and the morphology, enzymatic hydrolysis, recovery and the content of the composition of the treated wheat straw were investigated. Significant morphological change was observed when the wheat straw was...

Author(s):   Zhang Zhi-guo, and Chen Hong-zhang  

April 2012

Oral vaccination with attenuated Salmonella choleraesuis C500 expressing recombinant UreB and CagA antigens protects mice against Helicobacter pylori

  Helicobacter pylori are well known as the major gastro-duodenal pathogen of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Recombinant H. pylori vaccine comprising a single subunit antigen can only induce immune response with limited protection efficiency. Development of oral vaccine would be a new effective strategy for the prevention of H. pylori infection. In this study, the...

Author(s):   J. G. Chen, A. X. Liang, L. Han, J. J. Xiong, A. Z. Guo and L. G. Yang  

April 2012

Utilization of bio-waste cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) stalks and underutilized paulownia (paulownia fortunie) in wood-based composite particleboard

  The objective of this study was to investigate some mechanical (modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity and internal bond) and physical (thickness swelling and water absorption) properties of wood-based three-layer particleboard containing different cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) stalks and underutilized paulownia (paulownia fortunie) wood particle ratios (30, 50 and 70%) using urea formaldehyde resin....

Author(s):   Hossein Khanjanzadeh, Ali Akbar Bahmani , Ali Rafighi and Taghi Tabarsa  

April 2012

The characterization of cytoplasmic ribosomal protein genes in microsporidian Nosema bombycis Genome

Microsporidia are obligate intracellular, eukaryotic parasites of medical and commercial importance, which can infect almost all animals including humans. However, their ribosomes are not of the 80S type as other eukaryotes, but like the prokaryotic 70S ribosome. In order to get the global composition of ribosomal protein genes of Nosema bombycis, the pathogen of Pébrine, and their comparative genomics’...

Author(s): Handeng Liu, Guoqing Pan, Tian Li, Wei Huang and Zeyang Zhou,