African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12487

Table of Content: 19 January 2012; 11(6)

January 2012

Meat in African context: From history to science

  The cultural proceedings of animal slaughter in Africa always give impression that portrays traditional slaughter method as cruel. So far, the knowledge gap on the meat quality traits from traditionally slaughtered animals has not been filled in the continent. No pre-slaughter welfare database has been generated or archived to characterize the severity of traumatic injury perceived to be inflicted on animals...

Author(s):   P. O. Fayemi and V. Muchenje

January 2012

Nkx2.2 expression in corneal epithelia during pre- and post-natal mice and human development

  The Nkx homeodomain proteins play a role in cell type specification and/or maintenance of the differentiated phenotype. To investigate its expression, BAB/C mice were set up for timed mating. All specimens were cryosectioned, the TKE2 cell in two different media were collected for immunohistochemical staining and the cornea from all the time-points of postnatal mice were used for western blotting. We found...

Author(s):   Jing Zou,Qiuping Liu,Qiong Zou, Jinglin Yi

January 2012

Genetic diversity of Iranian potato soft rot bacteria based on polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis

  Bacterial soft rot diseases caused by Pectobacterium-Dickeya complex are the most important and yield losses diseases of potato crop worldwide. Loss due to these diseases in some years/fields under Iran condition is huge and destructive. To screen and characterize the causal agents, thirty bacterial soft rot isolates including 10 authentic pectolytic strains were...

Author(s):   Bahnaz Rahmanifar, Nader Hasanzadeh, Javad Razmi and Abolghasem Ghasemi  

January 2012

Molecular analysis of native Manipur rice accessions for resistance against blast

  The genetic diversity for resistance against blast, a major disease on rice, was assessed in the land race collections of Manipur, India, a region reported to be associated with origin of rice. The presence of eight well characterized genes, that is Pi-b, Pi-z, Piz-t, Pi-9, Pi-40, Pi-5, Pi-a and Pi-ta that were known to confer resistance to different isolates of blast were analyzed through polymerase chain...

Author(s):   A. Mahender, D. M. Swain, H. N. Subudhi and G. J. N. Rao  

January 2012

The use of hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hpt) with an artificial intron to obtain marker-off transgenic plants

  Since maize transposon Ac can move to a new location within genome, it has been used in removing selectable markers in transgenic plants. Previously, we have developed a marker-off system to truncate a selec marker in transgenic plants by locating one end of the transposon in the intron of the marker gene (glyphosate-tolerant epsps gene). In order to expand this technique to those marker...

Author(s):   Kuan-Te Li and Yuh-Chyang Charng  

January 2012

Novel expressed sequence tag- simple sequence repeats (EST-SSR) markers characterized by new bioinformatic criteria reveal high genetic similarity in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) breeding lines

  Using different bioinformatic criteria, the SUCEST database was used to mine for simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers.  Among 42,189 clusters, 1,425 expressed sequence tag- simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs) were identified in silico. Trinucleotide repeats were the most abundant SSRs detected. Of 212 primer pairs selected, based on repeat patterns of n≥8 for di-, tri-, tetra- and penta-nucleotide...

Author(s):   Kittipat Ukoskit, Penjun Thipmongkolcharoen and Prasert Chatwachirawong

January 2012

Effects of salicylic acid on monoterpene production and antioxidant systems in Houttuynia cordata

  Salicylic acid (SA) plays important roles in plant defense responses. However, little is available about its effects on monoterpene responses. Therefore, monoterpene contents and antioxidant systems were measured three days after foliar application of SA with different concentrations in Houttuynia cordata. SA at low concentrations (≤ 1 mM) suitably enhanced the efficiency of antioxidant system,...

Author(s):   Y. Wen Xu, Shuai Shuai Lv, Dan Zhao, Jun Wen Chen, Wen Ting Yang and Wei Wu  

January 2012

Organic carbon organic matter and bulk density relationships in arid-semi arid soils in Southeast Anatolia region

  Soil organic matter (SOM) and soil organic carbon (SOC) constitute usually a small portion of soil, but they are one of the most important components of ecosystems. Bulk density (dB or BD) value is necessary to convert organic carbon (OC) content per unit area. Relationships between SOM, SOC and BD were established in weak alkaline clay fractions of agriculture soils in Southeast Anatolia Region in Turkey....

Author(s):   Erdal SAKÄ°N

January 2012

Competition of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) cultivars with weeds

  One of the agronomic methods in weeds management is to recognize cultivars possessing high competitive ability with weeds and to recognize the effective characters in order to breed competitive cultivars in weeds sustainable management. Cultivar identification and discrimination has become an important issue in rapeseed breeding programs. A field experiment was carried out at the research station of Islamic...

Author(s):   Mahdi Zare, Forood Bazrafshan and Khodadad Mostafavi

January 2012

Physiological and phylogenetic analysis of rhizobia isolated from Acacia nilotica L.

  The present investigation was conducted to study the effect of different doses of urea on cadmium uptake by canola (Brassica napus L.) applied in full and split doses. Nine different treatments of urea used were: 0 (control), 60, 90, 120 and 150 kg/ha applied to soil as full doses before sowing, and 60, 90, 120, and 150 kg/ha applied as two equal splits; the first was before sowing, while the second was...

Author(s):   Kshipra  Dhabhai and Amla Batra  

January 2012

Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) using the ecological scarcity (ecopoints) method: A potential impact analysis to potable water production

  Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a method use to analyze a product or a service from the beginning of the process where it is extracted until it is not useful anymore or it is known as cradle-to-grave analysis. LCA analysis includes the inventory collecting all types of emission and waste. After it is done, the inventory will be interpreted to the environmental impacts in life cycle impact assessment...

Author(s):   Amir Hamzah Sharaai, Noor Zalina Mahmood and Abdul Halim Sulaiman  

January 2012

Biosorption of copper (II) from aqueous solution by mycelial pellets of Rhizopus oryzae

  In the present study, mycelial pellets of Rhizopus oryzae (MPRO) were investigated as a potential biosorbent for the removal of copper (II) from aqueous solution. The effects of the pellet diameter, solution pH, contact time, initial copper (II) concentration and temperature were studied. The optimum diameter and pH for biosorption of copper (II) was found to be 1.0 to 1.2 mm and 4.0....

Author(s):   Yong-Qian Fu, Shuang Li, Hua-Yue Zhu, Ru Jiang and Long-Fei Yin  

January 2012

The effects of exotic and native poplars on rhizosphere soil microbe and enzyme activity

  The relationship between tree species and soil microbial communities has attracted much attention in ecology. However, how different poplars species affect soilmicrobial community and soil enzymes activities are not well studied. Randomamplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method was used to assess the effects of sixplant species on...

Author(s):   Fan-Juan Meng, Feng-Lan Huang, and Qiu-yu Wang,  

January 2012

Effect of different doses of urea on the uptake of cadmium from soil by Brassica napus: A case study in Sargodha, Pakistan

  The present investigation was conducted to study the effect of different doses of urea on cadmium uptake by canola (Brassica napus L.) applied in full and split doses. Nine different treatments of urea used were: 0 (control), 60, 90, 120 and 150 kg/ha applied to soil as full doses before sowing, and 60, 90, 120, and 150 kg/ha applied as two equal splits; the first was before sowing, while the second was...

Author(s):   Zafar Iqbal Khan, Kafeel Ahmad, Shehnaz Yunas, Nudrat Aisha Akram, Yasir Rizwa, Muneeba Shaheen, Mian Jehan Zaib and Munawar Aziz  

January 2012

Effect of elemental sulphur and compost on pH, electrical conductivity and phosphorus availability of one clay soil

  Suitable plant nutrition is one of the most important factors in the quantity and quality of crops’ yield. In plant nutrition, each nutrient should be in adequate level. The most important role of pH is the control of nutrients solubility in soil. Nutrient availability usually decreases with increasing pH. Experimental soil sample was collected from 0 to 30 cm depth from Niar village around the...

Author(s):   Kazem Hashemimajd, Tayebeh Mohamadi farani and Shahzad Jamaati-e-Somarin  

January 2012

Enhanced cellulose production by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NTG) mutagenesis of an Acetobacter species isolate

  Cellulose-producing bacteria were isolated from 14 bacterial cellulose (BC) factories in Thailand, and subjected to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and/or N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NTG) mutagenesis for strain improvement. BC yields of the NTG mutant NU4-NTG30-51 were 54.68% higher than that of the reference strainAcetobacter xylinum ATCC 10245 and 43.69% higher than that of the parent strain...

Author(s):   Premjet Siripong, Srisawat Chuleekorn and Premjet Duangporn  

January 2012

Effect of consumer background on sensory scores of microwaved Angus loins

  The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of consumer background on the sensory evaluation of microwaved Angus loins. The steaks were prepared using a microwave. Only salt was added to taste. Sensory evaluation was done by an untrained panel of 70 participants of different ages, tribes and gender. Pearson’s correlation coefficients between sensory characteristics were determined. Age of...

Author(s):   Y. Z. Njisane, V. Muchenje and C. S. Gajana

January 2012

Partial removal of water from red pepper by immersion in an osmotic solution before drying

  Red pepper is dried for use as a spice. When using solar energy to dry it, there are no energy costs but using other energy sources such as fuel or electricity, the production cost of red pepper spice increase. Due to the fact that energy is becoming expensive globally, it can be envisaged that osmotic dehydration gains more popularity as a pre-processing dehydration step. In this study, red pepper samples...

Author(s):   Ä°nanç A. Levent and Ak Ferit

January 2012

Fruit characteristics and chemical proprieties of juice and seeds of three Opuntia ficus indica cultivars

  Cactaceae had always attracted attention by their strange shapes and important adaptability supporting extreme temperatures ranging from -10 to 65°C. For this reasons, morphological and biochemical prospection of three Tunisian cultivars of prickly pear (Thorny, Gialla and Rossa) were established. Results show significant differences between the cultivars. The source of this variation was probably...

Author(s):   Taissir El-Guizani, Nizar Tlili and Saïda Triki

January 2012

Partial purification, characterization and hydrolytic activities of amylases from Bacillus licheniformis and Aspergillus niger cultured on agricultural residues

  α-Amylase and amyloglucosidase produced by amylolytic Bacillus licheniformis andAspergillus niger isolated from plantain and yam peels media were partially purified and characterized. Following cultivation of the microbial isolates on the agricultural residue media, crude enzyme solutions were obtained by filtration and centrifugation techniques. Crude α-amylase and amyloglucosidase...

Author(s):   Adeniran, H. A. and Abiose, S. H.  

January 2012

In vitro antibacterial activity of crude ethanol, acetone and aqueous Garcinia kola seed extracts on selected clinical isolates

  The study was conducted to screen for in vitro antibacterial activity of crude ethanol,acetone and aqueous seeds extract of Garcinia kola at different treatment regimes against some selected clinical bacterial isolates comprising of Gram positive and negative organisms namely; Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli andPseudomonas aeruginosa and the...

Author(s):   P. E. Ghamba, E. B. Agbo, A. F. Umar, D. N. Bukbuk  and L. J. Goje  

January 2012

Lack of association of insertion/deletion polymorphism in angiotensin converting enzyme gene with nephropathy in type 2 diabetic patients in Punjabi population of Pakistan

  The pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy is not clearly understood. Beside haemodynamic alterations, genetic factors may also contribute to diabetic nephropathy leading to renal failure. Previous studies suggest that renin-angiotensin system may play critical role in progression and inhibition of diabetic nephropathy. Angiotensin converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion polymorphism is correlated...

Author(s):   Nakhshab Choudhry, Saeed Ahmed Nagra, Tahir Shafi, Ghulam Mujtaba, Muhammad Abiodullah and Naeem Rashid  

January 2012

Effect of antioxidant and anti-aggregating properties of micro-propagated plantlets of Ruta graveolens

  In the present study, we developed a protocol for in vitro propagation and evaluated antioxidant and anti aggregating properties of micro propagated leaf and callus extract of Ruta graveolens. The maximum number of callus induction was achieved from leaf explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium enriched with 0.5 mg/L IAA and 1.0 mg/L of 2,4-D which yielded morphogenic compact yellowish...

Author(s):   S. Gurudeeban, K. Satyavani, T. Ramanathan and T. Balasubramanian  

January 2012

Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of Herpes simplex virus type-2 gG gene in Iran

  Herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) is the main cause of genital herpes infection. Its prevalence is increasing worldwide and varies widely with generally higher rate in developing than developed countries and urban than rural areas. Identification of glycoprotein G (gG-2) from HSV-2 as type-specific antigen have been helpful in development of reliable and accurate type-specific serological...

Author(s):   Mehrnoush Eskandari, Hassan Momtaz, Sharareh Moghim and Mahboobeh Madani  

January 2012

Anti-aging potential of a cream containing milk thistle extract: Formulation and in vivo evaluation

  This study was designed to formulate and evaluate antı-agıng effects of a topical cream (water in oil (w/o) emulsion) containig extract of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) against its vehicle (Base) as control. Base containing no extract and a formulation containing 4% concentrated extract of Silybum marianum was developed by entrapping in the inner aqueous phase of w/o emulsion. Both the...

Author(s):   Akhtar Rasul and Naveed Akhtar  

January 2012

Oxidative stress induces idiopathic infertility in Egyptian males

  The most common cause of male infertility is idiopathic. Oxidative stress (OS) would play a vital role in etiology of idiopathic male infertility because of its targeting to spermatozoa plasma membrane rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. To examine OS effect on Egyptian men fertility, sperm samples were obtained from infertile idiopathic patients (25 to 35 years old). The samples were categorized into 4...

Author(s):   Ashraf A. Khalil, Hend M. Hussien and Eman M. Sarhan

January 2012

Bioavailability of iron speciations and EDTA-iron complexes for Thallassiosira weissflogii (Bacillariophyta)

  This study aimed to determine the effects of daily and/or initial additions of various amounts of Fe (II) and Fe (III), in combination with or without EDTA, on the growth ofThalassiosira weissflogii cultures. The results reveal that growth parameters were higher in the cultures containing 5000 nM Fe(III) ± EDTA than those of 5 nM Fe(III) and Fe(II). T. weissflogii cells seemed...

Author(s):   Selin Sayin, Oya Isik, Murat Ozturk, Leyla Hizarci Uslu and Funda Turan

January 2012

Effects of transient hypo- and hyper-thyroidism on growth performance, organ weights and serum levels of thyroid hormones in broiler chickens

  In order to investigate the effects of transient hypo- and hyperthyroidism on growth performance, organ weights and serum thyroid hormones of broilers, 120 one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into four dietary treatments for six weeks. The dietary treatments included: 1) control, 2) hypothyroid (hypo; propylthiouracil (PTU)-treated), 3) hyperthyroid (HYPER; thyroxine (T4)-treated) and 4)...

Author(s):   Mahdi Raeesi, Amir Roofchaee, Ahmad Zare Shahneh and Mohammad Bagher Pasha Zanousi  

January 2012

Effects of immune synergist of Chinese medicinal herbs on the efficacy of vaccination against classic swine fever

  Two-month-old piglets were fed with 1, 1.5 and 2% immune synergist of Chinese medicinal herbs together with vaccination against classic swine fever. Serum IgG and IgM levels increased more than the control group on day 30 (P<0.05). B and T lymphocyte proliferation in piglets fed with 1.5 and 2% herbal immune synergist markedly increased on day 30 as compared to the control group (P<0.05)....

Author(s):   Fuchuan Wang, Yibo Yan, Yuhuan Zhang, Yichao Han and Chao Guan