African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12487

Table of Content: 19 September 2007; 6(18)

September 2007

Cassava wastes: treatment options and value addition alternatives

  Value addition of cassava and cassava wastes is necessitated by rapid post-harvest spoilage, deterioration, low protein content and environmental pollution caused by the effluent and the other associated wastes that poses aesthetic nuisance. Biogas plants of all sizes and varying levels of technical sophistication not only recover the energy contained in cassava wastes but also eliminate most of the animal...

Author(s): A. O. Ubalua

September 2007

In vitro genotoxicity of piperacillin impurity-A

  The manufacturing and storage of the piperacillin produce different impurities of various concentrations, which may influence the efficacy and safety of the drug. Since no report of genotoxicity data is available on the impurities of piperacillin, further studies were designed and conducted to provide information for establishing the safety profile and qualification of the piperacillin...

Author(s): Magesh Vijayan, M. Deecaraman and Kalaichelvan Thangavelu Pudupalayam

September 2007

Effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on cadmium toxicity

  Thirty six Winstar rats were divided into six equal groups and investigated for induced cadmium toxicity, and the detoxicating action of ginger on liver-accumulated cadmium. Group 1, the control, were fed with normal rat chow and water for six weeks. Group 2 were fed with normal rat chow and cadmium water (200 ppm Cd in water). Group 3 were fed with rat chow-ginger concentrate (95:5, w/w...

Author(s):   Egwurugwu, J. N., Ufearo, C. S., Abanobi, O. C., Nwokocha, C. R., Duruibe, J. O., Adeleye, G. S., Ebunlomo, A. O., Odetola, A. O. and Onwufuji, O.  

September 2007

Amelioration of anaemia and organ damage by combined intraperitoneal administration of vitamins A and C to Trypanosoma brucei brucei-infected rats

  The effect of combined administration of 1000 i.u/100g body weight (bd.wt.) vitamin A and 100 mg/kg bd wt. vitamin C to Trypanosoma brucei brucei-infected rats daily for twenty-one days was investigated. The anaemia caused by T. brucei infection in rats not administered the vitamins was significantly (P<0.05) more severe than that recorded in the group of infected rats given the daily doses...

Author(s): Umar, I. A., Ogenyi, E., Okodaso, D., Kimeng, E., Stancheva G. I., Omage, J. J., Isah, S. and Ibrahim, M. A.

September 2007

Effects of aqueous leaves extract of Ocimum gratissimum on blood glucose levels of streptozocin-induced diabetic wistar rats

  The hypoglycemic effects of aqueous leaves extract of Ocimum gratisimum was investigated in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. A single administration of the extract at the doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight was done. The aqueous extract at the dose of 500 mg/kg significantly lowered blood glucose level (P<0.05) of the diabetic rats by 81.3% after 24 h of extract administration....

Author(s):   A. Mohammed, Y. Tanko, M. A. Okasha, R. A. Magaji and A. H.Yaro  

September 2007

Antimicrobial activity of Mucuna pruriens on selected bacteria

The investigation is aimed to carry out the antimicrobial activities of the methanol extract of Mucuna pruriens leaves. The antimicrobial activity of the extract was determined by the agar well diffusion method against various gram positive, gram negative and spore forming microorganisms and fungi. The methanol extract of M. pruriens showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against all...

Author(s): Salau, A. O. and Odeleye, O. M.

September 2007

The prevalence of positive LE cell and anti-DNA tests in a population of Thai adolescents

  The incidence of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) in Thailand is not well described. Here, we report the prevalence of a positive LE cell test and anti-dDNA latex agglutination test among a sample of Thai adolescents. Of 80 Thai young adolescent subjected to a positive LE cell test and anti-dDNA latex test was found one case having clinical presentations from mild to moderate symptoms, giving the prevalence...

Author(s): Suphan Soogarun and Viroj Wiwanitkit

September 2007

Paecilomyces fumosoroseus blastospore production using liquid culture in a bioreactor

  There are many advantages to using liquid cultures for the production of blastospores. These include mainly the processes of scale up which are relatively easy, as well as the control of parameters such as temperature, aeration and pH. In this work, we evaluated the production of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus blastospores using a low-cost liquid culture medium in a fermenter in comparison to a medium...

Author(s): Mónica Guadalupe Lozano-Contreras, Myriam Elías-Santos, Catalina Rivas-Morales, Hugo Alberto Luna-Olvera, Luis Jesús Galán-Wong and María Guadalupe Maldonado-Blanco

September 2007

Application of GIS to assess rainfall variability impacts on crop yield in Guinean Savanna part of Nigeria

  The scientific evidence on rainfall variability with its significant impacts on crop yield is now stronger than ever. It is even more so on maize that serves as staple food in most parts of Sub-Sahara Africa. Hence, this study aim at examines and map spatio-temporal impacts of rainfall variability on water availability for maize yield using Geographic Information System (GIS). Major regions where maize is...

Author(s): Odekunle T. O., Orinmoogunje I. O. O. and Ayanlade A.

September 2007

The effect of Maneb on implantation, fecundity rate and the thyroid activity in the rabbit

  The fungicide Maneb is a member of the family of dithiocarbamates that is used in the control of the fungal diseases of plants. The purpose of this work is to examine the effect of Maneb on implantation and thyroid activity at doses of 5, 10 and 50 mg/kg/day by gavage for 10 days in the domestic female rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus. The rabbits were sacrificed on the 11th day of pregnancy....

Author(s): Mallem L., Boulakoud M. S., Keck G. and Khalili K.

September 2007

The effect of sand-bed filtration on the oxygen demand characteristics of wastewaters from domestic, institutional and industrial sources

  Wastewaters from three different sources, private residence (domestic), medical clinic (institutional) and polymer industry (industrial) were characterised for their pollution potentials. The results of analysis show pH of 7.6, 6.5 and 6.3 for domestic, institutional and industrial wastewater, respectively. The DO, BOD and COD was found to be 4.01, 66 and 114 mg/l for the domestic wastewater, 3.70, 88.6 and...

Author(s): Akporhonor, E. E. and Asia, I. O.

September 2007

Microflora distribution and species ratio of Tunisian fermented doughs for bakery industry

  Thirty samples of fermented wheat dough microflora, collected from different Tunisian bakeries, were characterised. Forty per cent of the samples contained approximately 106 cfu/g of mesophilic aerobic bacteria (MAB). Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts dominated the microflora of these samples. They varied from 105 to 108 cfu/g. The LAB/yeasts ratio arising from microbial counts were varied...

Author(s): Sana M’hir, Mondher Mejri and Moktar Hamdi

September 2007

Biodiesel generation from oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis with xylose assimilating capacity

  This study explored a strategy to convert agricultural and forestry residues into microbial lipid, which could be further transformed into biodiesel. Among the 250 yeast strains screened for xylose assimilating capacity, eight oleaginous yeasts were selected by Sudan Black B test. The lipid content of these 8 strains was determined by soxhlet extraction method. One strain (T216) was found to produce lipids up...

Author(s): Chuan-chao Dai, Jie Tao, Feng Xie, Yi-jun Dai and Mo Zhao

September 2007

Antibiotic resistant pattern of environmental isolates of Listeria monocytogenes from Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

  Incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in cow manure, agricultural soil, and common vegetables sold in major markets in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria was determined. Antibiotic resistant pattern of the isolates was examined by paper disk assay. A total of 196 environmental samples were cultured on a selective medium out of which 153 (78.1%) were positive for L. monocytogenes. Erythromycin was the most...

Author(s): David, O. M. and Odeyemi, A. T.

September 2007

Fermentatative production of itaconic acid by Aspergillus terreus using Jatropha seed cake

  Fermentation process for the production of itaconic acid was carried out using jatropha seed cake. Itaconic acid is commercially produced by the cultivation of Aspergillus terreus with molasses. Jatropha seed cake is one of the best carbon sources among various carbohydrates, because it is pure, inexpensive and available in a mass supply. The reaction was carried out at various temperatures,...

Author(s): Dowlathabad MuralidharaRao, S. M. D. Jaheer Hussain, V. Pandu Rangadu, K. Subramanyam, G. Sivarama Krishna and A. V. N. Swamy

September 2007

Influence of mutation induction on the chemical composition of cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp

  Cowpea is one of the major sources of plant protein in Nigeria. The nutritional value of cowpea has long been recognized in Africa. This study was conducted to examine the influence of mutation induction on nutritional quality of cowpea. Dry sample of cowpea ‘IT84S 2246 D’ mutants and the non irradiated parent were ground to fine powder and used for proximate analyses in three experiments. Data...

Author(s): Olabisi F. Adekola and Funsho Oluleye

September 2007

In vitro propagation of Alstroemeria using rhizome explants derived in vitro and in pot plants

  Alstroemeria with beautiful and long shelf life of cut flower is one of the most important ornamental plants. This plant could propagate by splitting of the in vivo produced rhizomes but the propagation rate is rather low. In the present study, regeneration ability of plantlets was compared using in vitro and in vivo grown rhizome buds as explants. In vitro and in vivo grown rhizome buds were cultured on...

Author(s): Hamidoghli Yousef, Bohloli Sahar and Hatamzadeh Abdollah

September 2007

Changes in the nutrient and anti-nutrient content of micro-fungi fermented cassava flour produced from low- and medium-cyanide variety of cassava tubers

  Comparative studies were carried out on the ability of pure strain of Rhizopus oryzaeand Saccharomyces cerevisae to alter the nutritional quality of cassava flour produced from low- and medium-cyanide variety of cassava tuber.  Low- and medium-cyanide variety of cassava tubers were collected from International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria. These tubers were...

Author(s): Oboh, G. and Elusiyan, C. A.

September 2007

Protective role of onion and garlic on physicochemical alterations and toxicity of heated soybean oil

  Fresh and soybean oil heated with or without onion or garlic were analyzed for their physicochemical and toxicological properties. Darkened appearance, off flavors, rancid taste and significant reduction of iodine value was obtained for the heated oil. Acid value, peroxide value, viscosity and concentration of malondialdehyde of the thermooxidized soybean oil were also significantly elevated (P<0.05) with...

Author(s): Oyewole O. I. and Olayinka E. T.

September 2007

Agrobacterium mediated transformation of Tunisian Cucumis melo cv. maazoun

  Transgenic Cucumis melo cv. Maazoun containing the neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPT II) chimeric gene conferring resistance to kanamycin were obtained from cotyledons explants inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens (GV3101) that contained the binary vector plasmid pADI. Transformed shoots were obtained on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 1.50 mgl-1 IAA,...

Author(s): RHIMI Awatef, HERNOULD Michel and BOUSSAID Mohamed

September 2007

Extractability of Thevetia peruviana glycosides with alcohol mixture

  The aim of this work was to investigate the most effective extraction conditions for the production of thevetia seed protein concentrate of reduced cardiac glycoside content. Alcoholic extraction of the glycosides was studied as a function of time, solvent to meal ratio and solvent composition. Thevetia seed meal was extracted with 10:1, 15:1 and 20:1 solvent to meal ratios, for 45 min, 24, 48 and 72 h....

Author(s): Omolara O. Oluwaniyi and Samuel A. Ibiyemi

September 2007

Nutritive value of Stylosanthes guianensis and Lablab purpureus as sole feed for growing rabbits

  The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritive value of Stylosanthes guianensis and Lablab purpureus as sole feed for growing rabbit. Thirty-six cross-bred growing rabbits of mean weight 515 ± 2.3g were used for the study. The animals were randomly allotted to 3 different treatments. The animals in T1 were fed S. guanensis only, while animals in...

Author(s): Omole, A. J., Adejuyigbe, A., Ajayi, F. T. and Fapohunda J.B.

September 2007

Determination of the growth rate and volume of lipid produced by Lipomyces species isolated from shear butter leaf (Vitellaria paradoxa)

  A Lipomyces strains was isolated from shear butter leaf (Vitellaria paradoxa) by placing the leaf sample in 10 ml of sterile distilled water containing 0.002 g of potassium dihydrogen phosphate and incubated for 3 days at 28oC. A drop of this was subsequently streaked nitrogen free medium. For determination of growth rate and volume of lipid produced, 24 h culture of...

Author(s): Oladipo I. C., Adebiyi A. O., Ayandele A. A., Adebiyi A. P. and Adelowo O. O.

September 2007

Growth performance and nutrient composition of Bufo maculata (Linneaus) tadpole fed different practical diets as fish meal substitute

  One thousand and one hundred (1,100) Bufo maculata tadpoles of weight range 0.03 -0.05 g (mean = 0.04 ± 0.008 g) and length range, 1.2 - 1.6 cm (mean = 1.4 ± 0.018 cm) were collected from the breeding tanks using scoop net and stocked into the outdoor concrete culture tanks coded according to the experimental diet at the rate of one hundred and twenty tadpoles of known weights and...

Author(s): Sogbesan, Olukayode Amos and Ugwumba, Alda Adhia Alex

September 2007

Modelling the association between in vitro gas production and chemical composition of some lesser known tropical browse forages using artificial neural network

  In vitro gas production of four different browse plants (Azadirachta indica, Terminalia catappa, Mangifera indica and Vernonia amygdalina) was investigated under different extractions. The relationship between the forage composition parameters (dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, acid detergent fibre, neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent lignin), process parameters (extraction mode and...

Author(s): D. A. Fadare and O. J. Babayemi

September 2007

Evaluation of Trichoderma harzanium treated cassava waste on the quality and quantity of milk of goat

  The effects of the fungus, Trichoderma harzanium, treated cassava waste on milk quantity and quality were investigated in a completely randomized design model with twelve lactating West African dwarf does. Goats were fed the experimental diets containing O (A), 20 (B), 30 (C) and 40% (D) Trichoderma treated cassava waste during a 13 week lactation trial. The results revealed significant...

Author(s): Belewu, M. A. Asifat, A. A. and Yousuf, M. B.