African Journal of
Biotechnology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12487

Table of Content: 21 February 2012; 11(15)

February 2012

Molecular mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) determining resistance to Sugarcane mosaic virus in maize using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers

Molecular marker technology was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with resistance to Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV). This disease is spread worldwide and can cause devastating yield losses in susceptible maize cultivars. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic determination of resistance to SCMV in a maize population consisting of 120 F3 lines from a cross between maize inbred...

Author(s): Martina Soldanova, Tereza Cholastova, Martina Polakova, Zuzana Piakovaand Petra Hajkova    

February 2012

Development of somaclones in sugarcane genotype BF-162 and assessment of variability by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers in selected red rot resistant somaclones

Worldwide, sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L) is the major source of commercial sugar along with many other value added products. In Pakistan, during the year 2008 to 2009, there was a production of 50.05 million tonnes. Sugarcane genotype BF-162 was released for general use in the Punjab province during 1990, and it became susceptible to red rot. As environmental conditions are not conducive for flowering, so the red...

Author(s): M. T. H. Shahid, F. A. Khan, A. Saeed, M. Aslam and F. Rasul    

February 2012

Microsatellite markers associated with body and carcass weights in broiler breeders

Microsatellite markers are presently used in selection to facilitate the genetic improvement of growth and carcass traits in chickens. The genetic improvement of six weeks live body and carcass weights of Cairo B-2 line, after six generation of selection, was compared with the control line (C line). Cairo B-2 line had higher body weight, breast meat, and carcass parts than the C line. Seven microsatellites,...

Author(s): F. S. Nassar, R. E. A. Moghaieb, A. M. Abdou and F. K. R. Stino    

February 2012

Effects of bran, shorts and feed flour by ultra-fine grinding on rheological characteristics of dough and bread qualities

Wheat bran, shorts and feed flour are rich in dietary fiber and micronutrients. The effects of ultra-fine ground bran, shorts and feed flour on rheological characteristics of dough and bread qualities were investigated. Water absorption and dough development time gradually increased while mixing tolerance index and dough stability time decreased with the addition of bran, shorts and feed flour. The extension resistance...

Author(s): Jinli Zhang, Hanxue Hou, Haizhou Dong and Yangyong Dai    

February 2012

Genetic diversity in some introduced pasture grass cultivars revealed by inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers

This study was focused on studying the genetic diversity among pasture grass cultivars using inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers to determine their genetic background. Six grass cultivars were used in this study: two perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) cultivars (Aries and Quartet), two endophyte-free tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) cultivars (Fawn and K5666v) and two orchardgrass...

Author(s): M. I. Motawei and N. S. AL-Ghumaiz    

February 2012

Hydropriming effects on carbohydrate metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity and seed vigor of maize (Zea mays L.)

Two cultivars of seeds from the National Corn and Sorghum Research Center (NCSRC) and a Private Company (PC) were hydroprimed for 3 to 12 h, then artificially aged at 42°C, 100% RH for 96 h. The germination of NCSRC unprimed seeds after accelerated aging was greater than the PC seeds caused by its initial ascorbateperoxidase (APX) activity. Hydropriming for 3 to 9 h prevented any loss in germination due to...

Author(s): Papassorn Wattanakulpakin, Songsin Photchanachai, Khanok Ratanakhanokchai, Khin Lay Kyu, Panumart Ritthichai and Shuichi Miyagawa    

February 2012

Effect of gamma rays and ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) in M3 generation of blackgram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper)

Induced mutation in plant improvement has been proven to be one of the ways used to generate new sources of genetic variations in creating new varieties of blackgram. This additional tool is important in plant improvement, which is a valuable approach for plant breeding in crop research. A study of the effects of gamma rays and ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) on mutagenesis of blackgram was conducted to...

Author(s): Sri Devi, A. and L. Mullainathan    

February 2012

Comparison of callus induction and plant regenerationfrom twenty tall fescue varieties

Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is an important grass species both as turf and forage. In this study, 20 varieties of tall fescue were used to investigate the effects of genetic variations in tissue culture response. Plant genotype had a significant effect both on callus formation and plant regeneration in tall fescue. The forage type tall fescue varieties readily formed callus than turf type...

Author(s): Ki-Won Lee, Gi Jun Choi, Ki-Yong Kim, Hee Chung Ji, Hyung Soo Park, Sung Seo, Meing Jooung Kim and Sang-Hoon Lee    

February 2012

Rationality of using various physiological and yield related traits in determining salt tolerance in wheat

Improving the grain yield of wheat under stress conditions is always the major goal of plant scientist and breeder research. This study was conducted on five bread wheat genotypes with different salt tolerance potential using 8 and 15 dS m-1 salinity levels in pots filled with sandy clay loam soil. This study aimed to evaluate the significance of various physiological...

Author(s): Zulfiqar Ahmad Saqib, Javaid Akhtar, M. Anwar Ul-Haq, Ilyas Ahmadand Hafiz Faiq Bakhat    

February 2012

Field evaluation of mulberry accessions for susceptibility to foliar diseases in Uasin-Gishu district, Kenya

The incidence and severity of foliar disease pathogens in five mulberry accessions (Embu, Thika, Thailand, Kanva-2 and S41) grown in Kenya were evaluated under field conditions in Eldoret. The plants were rated for disease incidence and severity in two mulberry growth cycles over a period of 10 months (May 2009 to February 2010). A high incidence of 58.3% bacterial leaf blight (Xanthomonas...

Author(s): Nderitu Wangari Peris, Ngode Lucas, Kinyua Gacheri Miriam and Mutui Mwendwa Theophillus    

February 2012

Changes in germination behavior of wheat seeds exposed to magnetic field and magnetically structured water

To study the invigoration impact of magnetized seed and water on germination, wheat seeds with low viability (45%) were subjected to magnetization treatments. Seed and water was passed through specifically designed magnetic funnels. Comparison was made between treatments and control for seed germination (%), shoot and root length (cm) and their fresh and dry weight (g). Seed germination index (SGI) was also calculated...

Author(s): Babar Ijaz, Shakeel Ahmad Jatoi, Dawood Ahmad, M. Shahid Masood and Sadar Uddin Siddiqui    

February 2012

Evaluation of the Czech core collection of Trifolium pratense, including morphological, molecular and phytopathological data

The Czech national core collection of the red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) was established in 2006 based on previous analyses (2004 to 2005) of morphological and some phytopathological data observed in the field conditions. Input set included 57 tetraploid accessions (varieties and newly bred varieties) and 130 diploid accessions (varieties, newly bred varieties and wild forms collected from nature) of the world...

Author(s): Tomas Vymyslicky, Petr Smarda, Jan Pelikan, Tereza Cholastova, Jan Nedelnik, Hana Moravcova, Radovan Pokorny, Martina Soldanova and Martina Polakova    

February 2012

Responses of surface soil carbon and nutrients to re-vegetation of an eroded hillslope in southwest China

Chinese national re-vegetation on the eroded hilly landscapes may have potential to modify the surface soil carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) pools. However, few studies have investigated this relationship. We quantified differences in soil organic carbon (SOC), soil available nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP), and soil bulk density (BD) of the surface soil (0 to 10 cm) among different types of...

Author(s): Y. Li, N. Zhou, H. Q. Yu, D. C. Reicosky, G. R Hancock and L. F. Sun    

February 2012

Purification and characterization of laccase from Trametes hirsuta Bm-2 and its contribution to dye and effluent decolorization

In this study, the results demonstrated that Trametes hirsuta Bm-2 produced inducible laccases from wheat bran. Two laccase isozymes were partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, anion-exchange chromatography and size-exclusion chromatography. The major laccase LacI, is a monomeric protein with apparent molecular mass of 65 kDa (SDS-PAGE). The optimal pH of the enzyme is 4 to 4.5 and the optimal...

Author(s): Patricia Zapata-Castillo, María de Lourdes Villalonga-Santana, Jorge Tamayo-Cortés , Gerardo Rivera-Muñoz and Sara Solís-Pereira    

February 2012

A simple rapid gas-chromatography flame-ionization-detector (GC-FID) method for the determination of ethanol from fermentation processes

In the recent years, we have been facing an exponential increase in energy demand. To date, fossil fuels are the fuel of choice, but rise in costs, depletion of reservoirs and growing awareness to the environmental effects, have elevated the appeal of renewable energy sources. Among the most attractive substitutes, especially in the context of fuel for transportation, is bioethanol – the...

Author(s): Yoram Gerchman, Avraham Schnitzer, Racheli Gal, Nitsa Mirsky and Nicka Chinkov    

February 2012

Production and some properties of the thermostable feruloyl esterase and xylanase from Bacillus pumilus

This paper reports the enhanced production of extracellular thermostable feruloyl esterase and xylanase from Bacillus pumilus by optimization of inducing carbon sources. Batch studies were evaluated by varying the ratio of xylan and wheat bran on the medium for enzyme production by the bacterial culture. The feruloyl esterase and xylanase production were highest in culture filtrates...

Author(s): Yemin Xue, Ruili Wang, Jingjing Zhang, Chunying Xu and Huihui Sun    

February 2012

Optimization of the alcoholic fermentation of blueberry juice by AS 2.316 Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast

Central composite experimental design together with response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the fermentation temperature, pH and inoculums size for maximum production of ethanol and minimum production of volatile acidity during alcoholic fermentation of blueberry wine. A second-order polynomial model was fitted to the content of ethanol and volatile acidity of runs as the responses. Analysis of...

Author(s): Hong-Guang Yan, When-Hua Zhang, Jiang-Hua Chen and Zhi-En Ding    

February 2012

Characterization of the replication-associated protein (Rep) promoter of an alpha-satellite associated with Tobacco curly shoot virus

Alpha-satellites, nanovirus-like DNA components associated with begomoviruses (Family: Geminiviridae), encode a replication-associated protein (Rep) and depend on their helper viruses for spread within and between plants. In this study, using theAgrobacterium-mediated transient expression and stable transgenic systems, respectively we demonstrated that a 420 nt fragment located upstream of the Repgene of...

Author(s): Jie Zhang, Ya-Qin Wang, Hu-Wei Hou and Ya-Juan Qian    

February 2012

An antioxidant peptide produced by autolysis reactions from wheat germ

Wheat germ was incubated in a buffer solution of sodium citrate and dibasic sodium phosphate and its proteins were hydrolyzed by endogenous proteases to produce peptides. A peptide with high antioxidant activity was purified using ultrafiltration, Sephadex G-25 gel filtration column and consecutive chromatographic methods. The purified peptide was identified as Val-His-His-His (520.66 m/z) using reversed-phasehigh...

Author(s): Liming Hu, Ruixue Song and Zhenxin Gu    

February 2012

Genetic diversity in dill (Anethum graveolens L.) populations on the basis of morphological traits and molecular markers

Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) is a green leafy medicinal and aromatic plant belonging to Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) family widely used as spice and medicine. In order to evaluate the genetic diversity in different landraces of dill based on morphological traits and molecular markers, the seeds of 37 accessions collected from different areas of Iran in addition to one European accession were...

Author(s): M. Solouki, S. B. Hoseini, B. A. Siahsar and A. Tavassoli    

February 2012

The effect of exopolysaccharide biosynthesis and related enzyme activities of Grifola frondosa by the addition of ethanol extracts from traditional Chinese medicine, Gastrodia tuber

Grifola frondosa is an edible medicinal polypore mushroom and its exopolysaccharide (EPS) has demonstrated immunomodulatory effects in many previous studies. After adding the Gastrodia tuber components in culture medium of G. frondosa, both EPS and biomass production were significantly increased. As a result, we detected two enzymes which are related to EPS synthesis. Our results suggested that...

Author(s): Xiao-bao Xu, Tian-xiang Wu and Feng Wang    

February 2012

Gene expression profiling of grade II oligodendrogliomas and ependymomas

Grade II gliomas are morphologically and clinically heterogeneous tumors for which histopathological typing remains the major tool for clinical classification. To what extent the major histological subtypes (astrocytic, oligodendroglial, oligoastrocytic and ependymal tumors) constitute is largely unresolved. Morphological classification can often be ambiguous and would be facilitated by specific subtype...

Author(s): Zhongyu Liu#, Zhiqiang Yao#, Mengyu Xie, Lu Zheng, Guohan Hu, Chun Luo, Juxiang Cheng, Yulong Niu, Youquan Bu, Yicheng Lu and Chunfang Gao    

February 2012

Age, sex ratio, length-weight relationships and reproductive biology of Mediterranean swordfish, Xiphias gladius L., 1758, in the eastern Mediterranean

In this study, a total of 87 swordfish were collected from the Aegean Sea and northern Levantine Sea. The range of the lower jaw fork length was 99.0 to 161.0 cm (mean 15.45 cm) for males and 87.0 to 188.5 cm (mean 26.02 cm) for females. Females were slightly more numerous than males (39 males and 48 females). The estimated sex ratio was calculated as 1.23. The maximum value of gonadsomatic index (GSI)for...

Author(s): TuÄŸrul Zahit Alıçlı, Işık K. Oray, F.Saadet Karakulak and Abdullah E. Kahraman    

February 2012

Photosynthetic characteristics of Lycoris aurea and monthly dynamics of alkaloid contents in its bulbs

The leaf photosynthetic characteristics of Lycoris aurea, the monthly dynamics in lycorine and galantamine contents in its bulb and the correlation among the photosynthetic characteristics and the lycorine and galantamine during the annual growth period were studied by using LI-6400 portable photosynthetic measurement system, high performance liquid chromatography and SPSS13.0 software. The results show...

Author(s): Miaohua Quan, Lijun Ou, Chaowen She, Xianjin Wu, Dongming Chen and Jinting Lu    

February 2012

Nutritional factors effecting the production of L-asparaginase by the Fusarium sp.

The present work was directed to develop evaluation of nutritional requirements (carbon and nitrogen source) for the production of L-asparaginase by isolatedFusarium sp. The study was aimed at ascertaining optimal nutritional conditions for maximal enzyme production by submerged fermentation process. Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium semitectum were isolated from the soil...

Author(s): Radhika Tippani and Girisham Sivadevuni    

February 2012

Improvement of the frozen boar semen quality by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and L-cysteine supplementation

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of docosahexaenoic acid and L-cysteine supplementation on qualities of cryopreserved boar semen. A total of 30 ejaculates from 10 Yorkshire boars were included in the study. The semen was cryopreserved in lactose egg yolk base extender containing different concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid (fish oil) or/and L-cysteine : 0 mg and 0 mM...

Author(s): Panida Chanapiwat, Kampon Kaeoket, and Padet Tummaruk    

February 2012

Efficient plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cultivar CPF-237

In the present experiment, a number of cultures were established for optimization of normal plant regeneration in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cv., CPF-237. Well callus induction as well as its proliferation was observed on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 3.0 mg L-1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2.0% sucrose. Almost seven-weeks old proliferated calluses were...

Author(s): Ikram-ul-Haq and Salma Memon    

February 2012

Effects of feeding sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) leaves on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of rabbits

Forty-five (45) weaner rabbits were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments (T) to evaluate the effects of graded levels of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) leaves (SPL) and pelletized concentrate feed (PCF) on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of rabbits. The treatments were: T1 (0% SPL; 100% PCF); T2 (25% SPL; 75% PCF); T3 (50% SPL; 50% PCF); T4 (75% SPL; 25% PCF) and T5 (100% SPL;...

Author(s): F. O. Abonyi, E. O. Iyi and N. S. Machebe