African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12487

Table of Content: 22 May 2012; 14(41)

May 2012

Characterization of Indian and exotic quality protein maize (QPM) and normal maize (Zea mays L.) inbreds using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers

  Polymorphism analysis and genetic diversity of normal maize and quality protein maize (QPM) inbreds among locally well adapted germplasm is a prerequisite for hybrid maize breeding program. The diversity analyses of 48 maize accessions including Indian and exotic germplasm using 75 simple sequence repeat (SSR)markers yielded 258 scorable alleles, out of which 251 alleles were polymorphic with an average...

Author(s): B. Kalyana Babu, P. Pooja, J. C. Bhatt and P. K. Agrawal

May 2012

Studies on genetic diversity in poplar (Populus deltoides Bartram ex Marsh.) using morphological and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker

  30 popular poplar clones were studied to assess genetic divergence using morphological growth parameters and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Based on Mahalanobis D2 analysis, 15 clusters were formed and clustering pattern indicated presence of substantial genetic diversity among 30 poplar clones. These clones were subjected to RAPD analysis, a total of 374 RAPD loci were detected out of...

Author(s): Lakshmi Chaudhary, Mukesh Kumar, M. Kumar, Anil Sindhu and Salil K. Tewari

May 2012

Identification of six potato virus Y isolates from Saudi Arabia

  Six potato virus Y (PVY) were isolated from 20 potato plants (Solanum tuberosum sp.tuberosum L.) from the Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia showing leaf systemic symptoms (necrotic spots and mild mosaicism). 16 virus-infected plants gave positive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results with...

Author(s): Jamal S. M. Sabir

May 2012

Factor affecting Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of rice chitinase gene in Solanum tuberosum L.

  Potato is a very important food crop and is adversely affected by fungus.Agrobacterium-mediated transformation can play an important role in the improvement of potato. The present study was conducted to optimize the different factors affecting Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of chitinase gene. Nodes were used as explant of potato cultivars Desiree and Sh-5. Agrobacterium tumefacienstrain...

Author(s): Muhammad Zulfiqar Ahmad, Iqbal Hussain, Aish Muhammad, Shaukat Ali,Ghulam Muhammad Ali, Sohaib Roomi, Muhammad Amir Zia and Amir Ijaz

May 2012

Plant regeneration of Lotononis bainesii Baker (Fabaceae) through cotyledon and leaf culture

  Lotononis bainesii Baker is a promising perennial forage legume for subtropical regions.  The development of tissue culture methods for in vitro plant regeneration is useful, for example, for the propagation of selected plants and germplasm conservation. In addition, it could also facilitate crop improvement methods. For this last purpose, we performed experiments to develop a tissue...

Author(s): María Laura Vidoz, Kenneth Hays Quesenberry, Daniel Real, and Maria Gallo,

May 2012

Effects of tourmaline on growth of three kinds of microorganisms

  Tourmaline is a kind of widespread minerals and has been used in many fields of society. Owing to the special electric properties, tourmaline can destroy the hydrogen bond between water molecules. The growth of microorganism may be affected with addition of tourmaline; therefore the effects of tourmaline on three different kinds of microorganisms were studied using microcalorimetric method. The kinetic...

Author(s): Ying-Liang Zhao, Cheng-Bin Li, Geng Li, Wei-Yao Hu, Long Zhu, Xing-Lin Wang, Bo Zhou, Jian Liu, Xiao-Ying Zeng and Tian-Dong Zhang

May 2012

Comparative study of in vitro regeneration efficiency of shoot-tip explants of Pelargonium graveolens and some cultivars of banana (Musa spp.) grown in Rwanda in response to different concentrations of cytokinins

  This study examined the in vitro proliferation efficiency of shoot-tip explants from four cultivars of banana (Musa spp) and one species of Pelargonium graveolens. The explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with growth regulators. The comparative in vitro proliferation efficiency of banana cultivars was in the following order: Bluggoe > Injagi >...

Author(s): UGIRINSHUTI Viateur DHED&#; A DJAILO Bénoît and KABERA Justin Nzeyumwami

May 2012

Nitrogen fertilization and use efficiency in an intercrop system of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and soybean (Glycine max (L) Meril.)

  Experiments were conducted at the Department of Crop Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka Research farm during the 2008 and 2009 cropping seasons to determine the effects of intercropping cassava and soybean on cassava tuber and soybean grain yields respectively and on nitrogen use efficiency of cassava at the intercropping system. The experiment for each year was laid out in a factorial arrangement in...

Author(s): Umeh, S. I., Eze S. C., Eze E. I. and Ameh G. I.

May 2012

Evaluation of compost application for improving legumes yield and N2-fixation

  Composting is a biological process by which organic material is broken down and decomposed naturally. Compost from fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW) were prepared aerobically, analyzed and enriched with inorganic fertilizer and plant growth regulator (PGR). Therefore, experiments were conducted to determine the effect of prepared compost on the growth, yield and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) capacity...

Author(s): Rifat Hayat, Muhammad Iftikhar-ul-Hassan, Sidra Akram,Rizwan Ali Sheirdiland Mukhtar Ahmad

May 2012

Dynamic changes of main metabolic substances during anther-derived embryos development in loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. cv. ‘Dawuxing’)

  The main metabolic substances changes during the development process of anther-derived embryos in loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. cv. ‘Dawuxing’) were studied. These include water contents, dry mass contents, carbohydrates, soluble proteins and nucleic acids. In the developmental stages of anther-derived embryos, the fresh weight and the dry mass contents increased gradually with the...

Author(s): Yan Juan, Gu Rui-Zi, Wang Yong-Qing and Qin Hong-Mei

May 2012

The effect of growing conditions on phenolic compounds and antimicrobial activity of Myracrodruon urundeuva Fr. Allemão

  Myracrodruon urundeuva is a naturally occurring species in the Brazilian semi-arid and is widely used for anti-inflammatory and healing properties. This study evaluatesthe level of phenolic compounds and the antimicrobial activity in extracts of M. urundeuva obtained from greenhouse seedlings grown from seeds that were previously submitted or not to osmotic stress treatment...

Author(s):   Lenaldo Muniz de Oliveira, Nayra da Silva Negreiros Cardoso, Luzimar Gonzaga Fernandez, Milton Ricardo de Abreu Roque, José Raniere Ferreira de Santana, Claudinéia Regina Pelacani and Renato Delmondez de Castro

May 2012

Multiple shoot induction and rooting of Paeonia lactiflora ‘Da Fu Gui’

  Underground buds of herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) ‘Da Fu Gui’ weremicropropagated in vitro. The basic processes including culture initiation, shoot induction, axillary shoot proliferation and rooting were established. The best initial medium of ‘Da Fu Gui’ was half-strength MS (Murashige and Skoog) medium (double-strength Ca2+) supplemented with 0.5 mg...

Author(s): XiaoNan Yu, HongJuan Wu, Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva and MiaoMiao Shen

May 2012

Effects of seed collecting date and storage duration on seed germination in Artemisia spp.

  Artemisia genus (Asteraceae) includes approximately 400 and 33 species in theworld and Iran, respectively. The species have medicinal properties and is widely distributed in arid and semi-arid regions. Low seed germination due to some phenolic compounds especially in collected fresh seeds of Artemisia spp. has been reported. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of...

Author(s): Gazanchian, Ali and Zarif Ketabi, Hamed

May 2012

Influence of salicylic acid pre-treatment on cadmium tolerance and its relationship with non-protein thiol production in flax root

  Dose-dependent changes in cadmium (Cd) tolerance, non-protein thiol (NP-SH) production and their relationship were investigated in sixteen-day-old flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seedlings derived from seeds pre-soaked with various salicylic acid (SA) doses and grown hydroponically under increased Cd concentrations (0, 50 and 100 µM CdCl2). The results show that single Cd subjection decreased root...

Author(s): Aïcha Belkadhi, Hédia Hédiji, Zouhaier Abbes, Wahbi Djebali and Wided Chaïbi

May 2012

A kinetic study of biodiesel in waste cooking oil

  Methyl esters are produced by transesterification of waste cooking palm oil with methanol in the presence of a catalyst, potassium hydroxide (KOH). These reactions were carried out in 4:1 (molar ratio of methanol and oil) with 0.45 weight % of the catalyst used. The rate of reaction was enhanced with increasing temperature of 50, 55 and 60 up to 65°C, and for every temperature, three samples were taken...

Author(s): Dhanasekaran krishnan and Dharmendirakumar Mahendira Dass

May 2012

Impact of applying composted biosolids on wheat growth and yield parameters on a calcimagnesic soil in a semi-arid region

  A field trial in a semi-arid climate was carried out on wheat (Triticum aestivum var. Marchouch) growing on a calcimagnesic soil using compost applied at 42 T/ha during the three years of study, but in different ways: C1, C2 and C3. Over this period, the level of total Kjeldhal nitrogen (TKN) increased in the soil amended by high doses (C2 and C3, by about 33 and 50%) compared with steady low...

Author(s): Mohamed Hafidi, Soumia Amir, Abdelilah Meddich, Abdelmajid Jouraiphy, Peter Winterton, Mohamed El Gharous and Robin Duponnois 

May 2012

Isolation and characterization of Gram negative obligate and facultative alkalophilic Bacillus sp. from desert soil of Saudi Arabia

  Five new alkalophilic strains were isolated from soil samples collected from the western region of Saudi Arabia. They were identified by partial sequencing of 16s rRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplicons and morphological and biochemical characterization. Two of the isolates (number 2 and 3) were found to be facultative alkalophiles, while the other three (numbers 1, 4 and 5) were found to be obligate...

Author(s): Abdulrahman S. A. Assaeedi and Gamal E. H. Osman,

May 2012

Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seeds as unconventional nutritional source

  The composition of roselle seed from oil, protein, ash, fiber, fatty acids and amino acids was determined and compared in three cultivars in order to use it as an unconventional nutritional source. Aswan cv. occupies the highest significant rank in protein (31.51), oil (23.70) and fiber (4.87%) contents. Aswan and Sewa cvs. had the highest significant unsaturated fatty acid composition, especially oleic and...

Author(s): Mohamed A. Shaheen, Fathy S. El-Nakhlawy and Abdulmohsin R. Al-Shareef

May 2012

Effect of storage on the physicochemical characteristics of the mango (Mangifera indica L.) variety, Langra

  This study was carried out to evaluate “the effect of storage on the physicochemical composition of mango”. The experiment involved determination of the physicochemical compositions of moisture, total soluble solid (TSS), acidity, total sugar, reducing sugar, non reducing sugar, crude fat and ash. Washed mangoes were stored either at room temperature (25 ± 4°C) or storage...

Author(s): Muhammad Shahnawz, Saghir Ahmed Sheikh and Shahzor Gul Khaskheli

May 2012

Evaluation of antioxidant and antibacterial activities of methanolic flower extract of Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitch

  Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitch is a member of the family Asteraceae, with attractive yellow flowers borne singly at the end of each stem. The work was conducted to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial and DNA protecting ability of the methanol extract of W. trilobata flower. Antioxidant properties were assessed by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis 3-...

Author(s): J. Chethan, K. K. Sampath Kumara, S. R. Niranjana and H. S. Prakash

May 2012

Lack of ameliorative effect of Vitamins E and C supplements to oxidative stress and erythrocytes deterioration after exhaustive exercise at high altitude in native rats

  The purpose of this study was first, to determine the effects of acute forced swimming to exhaustion, by native rats at high altitude, on some hematological and biochemical parameters and on lipid peroxidation and cell anti-oxidant system in red blood cells of these rats. Secondly, to investigate any protective effect conferred by Vitamins E and C pre-co treatment. Young male Wistar rats weighing 150 to 160 g...

Author(s): Dallak M

May 2012

Physicochemical, thin layer and gas-liquid chromatographic analysis of ungrafted desi mango flower oil and mineral estimation in its flowers

  In the present work, flower oil of a local cultivar of Mangifera indica L. called ungrafted desi mango was subjected to physicochemical analysis and thin layer (TLC) and gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). Oil was extracted from the flowers in hexane using Soxhlet apparatus and the yield was 1.63%. The saponification and iodine values were 180 and 75.23, respectively, while the percentage of...

Author(s): Dildar Ahmed, Raza Chaudhery, Muhammad Ashraf Chaudhary, Zeeshan Aliand Shahid Rehman Khan

May 2012

Effect of sodium cyanide on the activities of some oxidative enzymes and metabolites in Clarias gariepinus

  The present study was conducted to determine the effect of sodium cyanide on oxidative metabolism, alterations in the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), behavior, respiratory rate and metabolites (lactic and pyruvic acid) of the fingerling of Clarias gariepinus. The fingerlings were exposed to a sublethal concentration (0.75 mgL-1) of sodium cyanide. Fish showed...

Author(s): Khalid Abdullah Al-Ghanim and Shahid Mahboob

May 2012

Isolation and bioactivity of endophytic filamentous actinobacteria from tropical medicinal plants

  Endophytic microorganisms are rich sources for drug discovery. Isolation of actinomycetes from the surface-sterilized tissues of 12 medicinal plants in Hainan, China, was carried out using different media of American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 172 agar, Gauze’s No. 2 agar, glucose-asparagine agar, humic acid-vitamin agar, and starch-casein-mineral salts agar. Of the 280 isolates recovered, 154 were...

Author(s): X .L. Huang, L. Zhuang, H. P. Lin, J. Li, M. Goodfellow and K. Hong,

May 2012

Isolation and bioactivity of endophytic filamentous actinobacteria from tropical medicinal plants

  Endophytic microorganisms are rich sources for drug discovery. Isolation of actinomycetes from the surface-sterilized tissues of 12 medicinal plants in Hainan, China, was carried out using different media of American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 172 agar, Gauze’s No. 2 agar, glucose-asparagine agar, humic acid-vitamin agar, and starch-casein-mineral salts agar. Of the 280 isolates recovered, 154 were...

Author(s): X .L. Huang, L. Zhuang, H. P. Lin, J. Li, M. Goodfellow and K. Hong,

May 2012

A novel method “CHROMagar” for screening vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) isolates

  Infection with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) is reported to be increasing and becoming a problem especially in health care systems with prolonged survival in the environment. In this study, we compared the performance characteristics of CHROMagar with conventional methods for detection of VRE in clinical urine specimens. A total of 7404 urine samples were entered in the study. All specimens were...

Author(s): Massoud Hajia, Mohammad Rahbar, and Mona Mohammad Zadeh

May 2012

Serum cytokines, a diagnostic tool for herniated lumbar disc type

    Inflammatory mediators such as cytokines have been suggested to be important in the pathophysiology of disc herniation. However, few studies have been ever conducted for evaluating the serum levels of these cytokines. This study aimed atassessing the agreement of serum and operation-field cytokines in diagnosis of herniated lumbar disc type. In this study, 43 patients with lumbar disc herniation...

Author(s): Amir Vahedi, Iraj Lotfinia and Azadeh Alizadeh

May 2012

Long-term effects of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis cotton on the non-target Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae) maintained for multiple generations

  The effects of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton on non-target Aphis gossypii were assessed by comparing the life-table parameters of aphids that fed on Bt vs. non-Bt cotton cultivars for the first and 37th generations. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was used to detect the transmission of the Bt protein from Bt cotton to A. gossypii and their...

Author(s): Ju-Hong ZHANG, #, Jian-Ying GUO#, Jing-Yuan XIA and Fang-Hao WAN

May 2012

Chebyshev collocation approach to stability of blood flows in a large artery

  In this study, treating the large artery as a rigid channel with uniform width and the blood as an incompressible Newtonian fluid with variable viscosity due to transverse variation in hematocrit ratio, the basic flow structure and its temporal stability to small disturbances were studied. A fourth-order Eigenvalues problem which reduces to the well known Orr–Sommerfeld equation in some...

Author(s): O. D. Makinde

May 2012

Chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil from Vismia guianensis fruits

  In recent decades, the essential oils of plants have drawn great interest as sources of natural products. Essential oil from the fruits of Vismia guianensis was tested for its chemical constituents and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the essential oil revealed the presence of 38 sesquiterpenoids. The major components were...

Author(s): Raquel G. Silvestre, Marcilio M de Moraes, Antonio C. S. Lins, Maria T. Ralph, José V. Lima-Filho, Celso A. Camara and Tania M. S. Silva

May 2012

Optimum stocking rate for goat production on improved highland pastures in South-western China

  The effects of four stocking rates (SR; 7.5, 15, 30 and 45 goats ha-1) on goat performance and herbage productivity were examined on the perennial pastures. The experiment was applied by grazing 65 six-months old Chinese Yunling black goat wethers for two years. Significant year × SR interactions were observed on standing crop (SC). A linear negative correlation was found for average daily gain (ADG)...

Author(s): ZHU Xiao-yan#, CHANG Shu-juan,#, ZHANG Ying-jun and LUO Hai-ling