African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12487

Table of Content: 26 January 2012; 11(8)

January 2012

Effect of salt stress on genetic diversity of Robinia pseudoacacia seedlings

  Salt stress is an abiotic stress known to affect plant growth and distribution. In this investigation, this expectation was tested on germination, seedlings’ survival and genetic diversity of Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust). To do this, seeds of R. pseudoacacia collected from a natural population were sown on soil media of different salt concentrations (0.6, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7...

Author(s):   Juntao Gu, Liu Weina, Akindele Akinnagbe, Jinmao Wang, Li Jia and Mingsheng Yang  

January 2012

p53 oncogene mutations in head and neck cancer based on the weighted Euclidean distance

  In order to study the p53 mutations in head and neck cancer, we explored therelationship between the different positions of the bases and the amino acids’ physical and chemical properties. In this paper, the Euclidean distance (d) was defined. Furthermore, by using improved variation coefficient method, the Euclidean named asweighted Euclidean distance (d*)...

Author(s):   Kong Juanjuan, and Zhu Ping,  

January 2012

Association analysis of PRKAG3 gene variants with carcass and meat quality traits in beef cattle

  The bovine PRKAG3 gene encodes a muscle-specific isoform of the regulatory gamma-subunit of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK), which plays a key role in regulating energy homeostasis in eukaryotes. It is well known that mutations in the PRKAG3 gene affect high glycogen content in the porcine skeletal muscle and, consequently, meat quality. Therefore, this gene has...

Author(s):   Wu-Feng Li, Jun-Ya Li, Xue Gao, Shang-Zhong Xu and Wen-Bin Yue  

January 2012

Efficient one-step tissue culture protocol for propagation of endemic plant, Lilium martagon var. cattaniae Vis.

A rapid, one-step method for direct leafy and rooted bulblets regeneration of Lilium martagon var. cattaniae Vis. was established using seeds as the starting explants forin vitro culture initiation. Adventitious bulblets were regenerated from one scale explants on MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) medium supplied with various concentrations of plant growth regulators. The most efficient medium for...

Author(s): Marijana Skorić, Suzana Å½ivković, Jelena Savić, Branislav Šiler, Aneta Sabovljević, Sladjana Todorović and Dragoljub Grubišić,  

January 2012

An input-output energy analysis in pistachio nut production: A case study for Southeastern Anotolia region of Turkey

  This research examined the energy use pattern and energy input/output analysis of pistachio nut widely grown in the South-eastern Anatolia, Turkey. For this purpose, data from pistachio nut production were collected in 61 farms from ten villages by a questionnaire which was selected according to their regional properties. As a result, the total energy input used in various farm operations for cultivating the...

Author(s):   Cevdet SaÄŸlam, Ibrahim Tobi, Ferhat Küp and Melih Yavuz Çevik

January 2012

Transformation of lacZ using different promoters in the commercially important red alga, Gracilaria gracilis

  This paper reports the first successful transformation of Gracilaria gracilis(Stackhouse) M. Steentoft, L.M. Irvine and W.F. Farnham with lacZ-containing plasmids by microparticle bombardment. Transient expression of the lacZ reporter gene was compared under the control of three different viral promoters including the Simian virus 40 (SV40) promoter, the Cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter and the...

Author(s):   Suzanne M. Huddy, Ann E. Meyers and Vernon E. Coyne  

January 2012

Effect of cadmium on soybean (Glycine max L) growth and nitrogen fixation

  To study the effect of cadmium (Cd) on soybean growth and nitrogen (N2) fixation, an experiment was performed in sand culture using Hoagland nutrient solution. At the time of sowing, different cadmium level that is 0, 4, 8 and 16 mg kg-1 sand was created using Cd (NO3)2. Soybean shoots and root lengths shoot and root biomass, nodule density and Cd uptake was recorded on 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12...

Author(s):   Rizwan Ali Sheirdil, Kashif Bashir, Rifat Hayat and Mohammad Saleem Akhtar  

January 2012

Sensitivity of Botrytis cinerea isolates against some fungicides used in vineyards

  During August 2004 and 2005, isolates of Botrytis cinerea were collected from table and wine grapes in the Trakya region, Turkey. They were tested for sensitivity to cyprodinil+fludioxonil, fenhexamid, procymidone, pyrimethanil and tebuconazole under laboratory conditions. Fungicide sensitivity tests showed that B. cinerea isolates appeared more sensitive to cyprodinil+fludioxonil than to...

Author(s):   Nagehan Desen Köycü, Nuray Özer and Nafiz Delen  

January 2012

New records of fungi from Iran

  Three species of fungi were recorded for the first time from Iran (Amanita virosa,Russula vesca and Russula persicina). The species was collected from the forests of Asalem and Talesh in Gilan Province. Gilan province is located in north of Iran and southwest of Caspian Sea. The three specimens of macroscopic fungi belonged to the Amanitaceae and Russulaceae classes, which are...

Author(s):   Sara Saadatmand and Fariba Azarbooyeh  

January 2012

Induction of somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in the reed grass (Phragmites communis Trin.)

  An in vitro culture system for the large-scale propagation of Phragmites communisTrin. (reed) was established by optimizing culture conditions for callus induction and differentiation together with plant propagation using regenerated plantlets. Callus was induced from stem segments with callus induction medium containing auxin: 4-fluorophenoxyacetic acid (4-FA) or...

Author(s):   Jeong-Eun Lee, Sang-Gyu Seo, Bong-kyu Kim, Seong-Min Woo, Bon-Cheol Koo, Tae-Ho Park, Yong Pyo Lim and Sun-Hyung Kim

January 2012

Behavior of durum wheat genotypes under normal irrigation and drought stress conditions in the greenhouse

  Drought is a major problem reducing agronomic crop production worldwide. Increasing the genetic potential of yield in water deficit condition is one of the major objectives of durum wheat breeding programs in Iran and other countries. This study was conducted to determine drought tolerant genotypes with high yield in normal and drought stress conditions. Twenty-five durum wheat genotypes were tested in a...

Author(s):   Mostafa Ahmadizadeh, Mostafa Valizadeh, Hossein Shahbazi and Ali Nori  

January 2012

Isolation and characterization of native Bacillus thuringiensis isolates from Saudi Arabia

  A total of 500 soil samples were collected from different localities across the kingdom to isolate native Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains. Sodium acetate- (0.25 M) -selection heat-pasteurization, and 50% ethanol treatment methods were used for Bt isolation. Phenotypic characterization and identification of recovered Bt isolates was accomplished on the basis of morphological characteristics of...

Author(s):   Talat A. El-kersh, Yazeed A. Al-sheikh, Raid A. Al-akeel and Alaa A. Alsayed

January 2012

Enrichment of Pb, Hg and Cr in cultured carp otolith

  Fish otolith is a good recorder of water environment in which the fish lived. In order to identify the elements in otolith that are sensitive to environment and their enrichment rules, lab-culture experiments of carps were carried out. Pb, Hg and Cr were added separately into tanks in which the carps lived, and the tanks were named as Pb tank, Hg tank and Cr tank, respectively. Inductively coupled plasma mass...

Author(s):   Dongni Ren, Yonghua Gao and Qingling Feng  

January 2012

Length-weight relationship of largescale mullet, Liza macrolepis (Smith, 1846), off the southwestern coast of Taiwan

  Liza macrolepis inhabits marine, estuarine, and fresh water throughout most tropical and temperate regions of the world. L. macrolepis were collected using samples caught by set net in the southwestern of Taiwan in this study. Length-weight and length-length, fork (FL), standard (SL), and total (TL) lengths relationships are derived, respectively. The relationships between lengths are all...

Author(s):   Wu-Shan Chu, Yi-You Hou# , Yih-Tsong Ueng#, and Jiang-Ping Wang,

January 2012

Production of mono sugar from acid hydrolysis of seaweed

The purpose of this work was to optimize the process conditions for the saccharification of macroalgae (seaweed) into mono sugar using the following parameters such as: Amount of biomass, catalyst concentration, temperature and reaction time. The major component of Ulva pertusa (green seaweed), Laminaria japonica (brown seaweed) and Gelidium amansii (red seaweed) is carbohydrate which can...

Author(s): Sung-Soo Jang, Yoshihito Shirai, Motoharu Uchida and Minato Wakisaka  

January 2012

Comparison of synthetic dye decolorization by whole cells and a laccase enriched extract from Trametes versicolor DSM11269

  Trametes versicolor strain DSM 11269 was found to decolorize six out of seven different synthetic dyes when grown on dye-containing agar plates. Using a laccase enzyme extract, enriched from the fungal liquid culture supernatant, the anthraquinone derivative dyes (Alizarin Red S and Remazol Brilliant Blue R) were decolorized in three hours at 50°C by 55 and 70%, respectively. The four azo...

Author(s):   Monnat Theerachat,, Sandrine Morel,, David Guieysse,, Magali Remaud-Simeon, and Warawut Chulalaksananukul,  

January 2012

Diversity of macrofungal community in Bifeng Gorge: the core giant panda habitat in China

Macrofungi not only play an important role in pollution control and other environmental protection measures, but also an important resource in food and pharmaceutical industries. However, the diversity of the macrofungal community in the core habitat of the giant panda in Bifeng Gorge, China is still inadequate. In the current study, the macrofungal diversity in Bifeng Gorge was investigated using morphologic and...

Author(s): Shujiang Li, Tianhui Zhu, Guanghai Liu and Hanmingyue Zhu  

January 2012

Isolation and partial purification of lysozyme from saliva of Bali cattle (Bos sondaicus) using an aqueous mixture of polyethylene glycol (PEG) with sodium sulfate

  Lysozyme from saliva of Bali cattle (Bos sondaicus) was successfully isolated through an aqueous mixture system of polyethylene glycol (PEG 4000) and salt (Na2SO4). About 100 µg/ml lysozyme of 14.2 kDa, determined through sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), per 4800 µg/ml saliva was obtained. Based on turbidity assay of Staphylococcus aureus, it was revealed...

Author(s):   Sulaiman Ngongu Depamede, Niken Asri, Nur Indah Julisaniah, Bambang F. Suryadi, and Djoko Kisworo  

January 2012

The establishment of a slow-growth conservation system in vitro for two wild lily species

  There are abundant resources of wild lily in China. To achieve a sustainable use for these resources, a slow-growing preservation system should be well established. Therefore, to get an optimal storage condition, tube seedlings of Lilium davidii andLilium longiflorum were used as explants cultured on nine different media at 24 and -2°C separately, which included: 1/4 or full Murashige and...

Author(s):   Du Yun-peng, Li Wen-yuan, Zhang Ming-fang, He Heng-bin, and Jia Gui-xia

January 2012

Effect of amino acids on bioleaching of chalcopyrite ore by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans

  Amino acids seem to play a major role during bioleaching of chalcopyrite ore byThiobacillus ferrooxidans. Efficiency of microbial leaching of chalcopyrite by T. ferrooxidans was investigated in the presence of L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid, L-histidine and L-serine. The bioleaching of copper ion (Cu2+) from the low grade ore increased significantly in the presence of L-serine. Although...

Author(s):   B. Ghosh, , B. P. Mukhopadhyay and H. R. Bairagya

January 2012

Milk-clotting fungus enzymes production: A sustainable development approach based on whey recycling

Five species of Aspergillus fungus: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus awamori, Aspergillus tubingensis and Aspergillus tamarii, and one Penicillium: Penicillium pinophilum were isolated from Algerian soil and identified using both microscopic observation and ICT sequence identification. Their potential milk-clotting activity was demonstrated and attributed to an acidic protease activity. For the culture...

Author(s): Aïcha Benlounissi, Aïcha Mechakra-Maza, Zoubida Gheribi, Meriem Mahfouz, Loïc J. Blum and Christophe A. Marquette 

January 2012

Kinetic and degradation efficiency of trichloroethylene (TCE) via photochemical process from contaminated water

  Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common pollutant in groundwater and one of the priority pollutants listed by the U.S. EPA. With regard to concentration ranges in previous studies exceeding environmental levels by far with millimolar concentrations of TCE, this study deals with the degradation of TCE at micromolar concentrations by UV/H2O2. The degradation rate of TCE at different dilute solution levels, 30, 300...

Author(s):   Sina Dobaradaran,, Ramin Nabizadeh, Amir Hossein Mahvi, Azita Noroozi,Masoud  Yunesian, Noushin Rastkari, Shahrokh Nazmara and Soraya Zarei

January 2012

Role of green tea on nicotine toxicity on liver and lung of mice: Histological and morphometrical studies

  Nicotine is the more abundant component in cigarette smoking. The natural diet contains a variety of compounds, such as green tea that exhibit protective effects towards different toxicities. Nicotine is firstly metabolized in liver, and the lung is the main target organ susceptible to smoking; so, this study was aimed to investigate the effects of nicotine on this organs using histopathological and...

Author(s):   Azza M. Gawish, Aliaa M. Issa, Nahed S. Bassily and Sherin M. Manaa  

January 2012

Physiological mechanism of resistance to anthracnose of different Camellia varieties

  Tea oil camellia (Camellia oleifera) is an important oil-producing plant which is widely distributed in the Dabie Mountain of Anhui province in China. Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) is a common and serious disease which often cause flower and fruit drop in tea oil, leading to 50% or more loss in yields. DifferentCamellia varieties vary in their resistance to anthracnose. There are few...

Author(s):   Xinzhang, Guangdao Yang, Jie Yang and Qinglong Shu  

January 2012

Effect of saturation on seed dormancy and germination of the halophyte Leymus chinensis

The halophyte, Leymus chinensis (Trin.) a perennial rhizomatous grass, is widely distributed in northern China, Mongolia and Siberia. Due to its ecological and economical significance, understanding the underlying causes of the low fecundity and long-term seed dormancy that are characteristic of L. chinensis is critical for promoting propagation and germination of this grass....

Author(s): Sun Yan-Lin, Jin Cheng-Wu and Hong Soon-Kwan,

January 2012

Effect of mating types on amorpha-4,11-diene production in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae

  Amorpha-4,11-diene is the precursor of artemisinin, an antimalarial drug. The effect of yeast mating types on the production of amorpha-4,11-diene was investigated with the aim of improving the yield of the metabolite in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A yeast expression vector pYeDP60/GAPDH/ADS harbouring the amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS) gene was transformed into S....

Author(s):   Huang Yong, Kong Jian qiang, Shen Jun hao, Zheng Xiao dong, Wang Wei, Yang Kang juan and Zhu Ping

January 2012

Bioinformatic analysis to discover putative drug targets against diarrheal causative agents

  Availability of genome sequences of pathogens has offered a tremendous amount of information that can be useful in drug target identification. Complete genome sequences of several pathogenic bacteria including Shigella spp., Escherichia coli,Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhimurium and Yersinia enterocolitica mostly involved in causing diarrheal diseases have been determined....

Author(s):   Muhammad Shakil Khan, Sana Zahra and Hamid Rashid  

January 2012

Glutathione role in gallium induced toxicity

  Metallo-elements have strong affinity for sulfhydryl group (-SH) of glutathione (GSH) present in tissues. It is very important and interesting to study the reaction of gallium nitrate and glutathione as biomarker of glutathione role in detoxification and conjugation in whole blood components (plasma and cytosolic fraction). The effect of gallium nitrate different concentrations was examined on GSH present in...

Author(s):   Ashfaq Ahmad, Muhammad Farid Khan, Kamran Ahmad Khan, Haroon Khan, Muhammad Tahir Razi, Asim.ur.Rehman and Naseem Ullah  

January 2012

Influence of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on plasma B-type natriuretic peptide in patients with acute ST elevated myocardial infarction

  B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is secreted from the ventricles in response to volume expansion and pressure overload. It is related to the injuries and function of the heart. This study aimed to investigate whether emergency percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) could influence the BNP level in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). 193 patients admitted with...

Author(s):   Zhi Liu, Lushan Liu, Yueqiao Xu, Qi Hua and Jian Qin    

January 2012

Evaluation of biochemical changes in unstimulated salivary, calcium, phosphorous and total protein during pregnancy

  Pregnancy is thought to be predisposed to the impairment of oral and dental health. As saliva contributes to oral homeostasis, this study aimed to compare the changes of total protein, calcium and phosphorous concentration in whole saliva between pregnant and non-pregnant Iranian women. Samples were composed of 60 pregnant and 60 non-pregnant women attending Mirza Koochak khan hospital in Tehran....

Author(s):   Mahin Bakhshi, Majid Sirati Sabet, Elham Sadat Hashemi, Sedigheh Bakhtiari, Maryam Tofangchiha  Saranaz Azari Marhabi and Somayyeh Alirezaei

January 2012

Assessment of traditional medicinal application of Alchornea cordifolia

  Ethanol and expressed extracts of the leaves of the shrub Alchornea cordifolia were prepared for testing their antibacterial activity using Escherichia coli andStaphylococcus aureus as test organisms. The broad-spectrum antibiotic Ampiclox was used in a 1:1 dilution to provide approximate bases for comparison of the antibacterial activity of the extracts. Indication was that the...

Author(s):   Lovet T. Kigigha and Marigold N. Atuzie  

January 2012

A rapid high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the extraction and quantification of folates in dairy products and cultures of Propionibacterium freudenreichii

  Nutritional folate deficiencies in Southern African communities necessitated mandatory fortification. Current microbiological assays (MA) used to measure food folates, essential for quality control and regulatory purposes, are time-consuming. This study describes an alternative extraction and detection method for folates in dairy products and Propionibacterium freudenreichii cultures. Folates were...

Author(s):   Jessy Van Wyk and Trevor J. Britz  

January 2012

PCR-based identification reveals unique Southern African internal transcribed spacer (ITS) haplotypes of hookworms (Ancylostoma) of dogs from the Durban metropole, South Africa

  Previous studies on helminths of dogs have revealed a relatively high prevalence ofAncylostoma spp. in dogs in Southern Africa. Ancylostoma caninum, and to a lesser extent, A. braziliense have been reported as the predominant species in dogs based on either morphology of eggs or of adult parasites. The reliability of both methods is questionable and hence the aim of this study was to...

Author(s):   Jennifer Lamb, Melanie Napier and Samson Mukaratirwa

January 2012

Design, synthesis and antibacterial activity of a novel hybrid antimicrobial peptide LFM23

  Antimicrobial peptides produced by many tissues and cell types of invertebrates, insects and humans as part of their innate immune system, have received increasing attention as potential candidates due to their administration as pharmaceutical agents. In the present study, a novel hybrid antimicrobial peptide LFM23 consisting of 23 amino acid residues was designed based on the primary sequences...

Author(s):   Xiaoyu Zhao, Deshui Yu, Hainan Gong, Liqiang Meng, Jing Li, Shumei Zhang, Xu Cao and Xingjun Feng  

January 2012

Analysis of biofilm formation and associated gene detection in Staphylococcus isolates from bovine mastitis

  The objective of this study was to investigate the biofilm-forming ability and distribution of biofilm associated genes in clinically isolated Staphylococcus in bovine mastitis. Silver staining, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and crystal violet staining were conducted for the detection of biofilm-forming ability in 24-well plates....

Author(s):   Li LI, Hong-jun YANG, Dai -cheng LIU, Hong-bin HE, Chang-fa WANG,  Ji-feng ZHONG, Yun-dong GAO and Yanjun Zeng  

January 2012

Estimation of genetic parameters for body weights of Kurdish sheep in various ages using multivariate animal models

  Genetic parameters and (co)variance components were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood (REML) procedure, using animal models of kind 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, for body weight in birth, three, six, nine and 12 months of age in a Kurdish sheep flock. Direct and maternal breeding values were estimated using the best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) by DF-REML software. The data used in the present study was...

Author(s):   Borhan Shokrollahi and Masoud Zandieh  

January 2012

Molecular study and phylogenetic analysis of Mycoplasma synoviae isolated from poultry flocks from Mazandran Province of Iran

  Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) is one of the important pathogens in chicken and turkey which cause great economic losses in poultry industry. M. synoviae has one serotype but there is heterogeneity among MS strains. The aim of this study was to analyze the DNA sequence of Mycoplasma synoviae isolates from Mazandran province poultry flocks of Iran and compare them with MS from other...

Author(s):   Hosseini Aliabad S. A., Pourbakhsh, S. A., Charkhkar S., Bozorgmehri Fard M. H. and Shikhi, N.

January 2012

Antiviral activities of streptomycetes against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in Datura plant: Evaluation of different organic compounds in their metabolites

  A total of 20 strains of actinomycetes were isolated from Al-Kharj (K) and Al-Madina (M) areas in Saudi Arabia. Among these strains, six were selected for antiviral activity screening which are K1, K2, K3, M1, M2 and M3. All the selected strains were characterized morphologically to be under the genus Streptomyces. Primary and secondary screenings were performed against seven human pathogenic...

Author(s):   Ismet Ara, Najat A. Bukhari, N. M. Aref, Mahera M. A. Shinwari, M. A. Bakir  

January 2012

Herbal additives and organic acids as antibiotic alternatives in broiler chickens diet for organic production

  This experiment was conducted to compare the influence of antibiotic, organic acids and herbal additives on broiler chickens. Treatments included: (1) basal diet (2) mixture of organic acids (3) shallot (4) yarrow (5) mixture of shallot and yarrow and (6) antibiotic. Significantly, increased feed intake (FI) was found by all treatments as compared to the control group. Significant higher body...

Author(s):   Ali Asghar Saki, Reza Nasseri Harcini, Enayat Rahmatnejad and Jalal Salary  

January 2012

Do diosgenin ameliorate urinary bladder toxic effect of cyclophosphamide and buthionine sulfoximine in experimental animal models?

Urotoxicity is a troublesome complication associated with cylophosphamide (CP) andL-buthionine-SR-sulfoximine (BSO) treatment in chemotherapy. With this concern in mind, this present study investigated the potential effects of diosgenin for the first time on urotoxicity induced by acute CP and BSO doses using a Swiss albino mouse model. Toxicity modulation was evaluated through measuring lipid peroxidation...

Author(s): Bechr Hamrita#, Kamel Rouissi#, Soumaya Kouidhi #, Bassem Jaouadi and Amel Benammar Elgaaied

January 2012

Evaluation of phytonutrients in Adlay (Coix lacryma-jobi L.) seeds

Adlay (Coix lacryma-jobi L.) has long been cultivated in oriental countries as a cereal and medicinal crop. In this study, eight adlay varieties, most commonly cultivated in South Korea were selected and their seed phytonutrient contents were evaluated. The average total vitamin E content was 37.38 mg kg-1. Two major components of vitamin E were γ-tocopherol (14.76 mg kg-1) and γ-tocotrienol (14.18 mg kg-1),...

Author(s): Shiva Ram Bhandari, Suk-Keun Park, Young-Cheol Cho and Young-Sang Lee