African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12487

Table of Content: 28 February 2012; 11(17)

February 2012

Biological effects of electromagnetic fields

Recently, the possible effects of extra low frequency electromagnetic fields on the public health have become an interesting subject. Generally, electromagnetic fields occur around the high voltage lines. However, electromagnetic fields also occur with some electrical machines use for fun and TV used routinely at our home and offices. Epidemiological researches explained that the effects of electromagnetic fields are...

Author(s): Sevil Yalçin and Günhan Erdem    

February 2012

Overview of wireless underground sensor networks for agriculture

In recent years, many applications have been proposed for wireless sensor networks (WSN). One of these is agriculture, where WSN can play an important role in the handling and management of water resources for agricultural irrigation and so on. The WSN suffer from intensive human involvement and delay of information. This paper shows that the wireless underground sensor networks (WUSN), which communicates in the soil is...

Author(s): Xiaoqing Yu, Pute Wu,, Wenting Han, and Zenglin Zhang,    

February 2012

Detection of avian nephritis virus and chicken astrovirus in Nigerian indigenous chickens

Avian nephritis virus (ANV) and chicken astrovirus (CAstV) are widely distributed in poultry flocks worldwide, causing growth retardation. However, these avian astroviruses have not been previously diagnosed in poultry species in Nigeria. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used for detecting ANV and CAstV in gut contents...

Author(s): Daniel Oladimeji Oluwayelu, Victoria Smyth and Daniel Todd    

February 2012

Genetics similarity among four breeds of goat in Saudi Arabia detected by random amplified polymorphic DNA marker

Phylogeny analysis using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers was performed for studying genetic variation in four Saudi Arabia goat breeds, namely: Harri, Ardi, Habsi and Masri. Six goats from Harri breed, four each from both Ardi and Habsi breeds and five from Masri breed were used for the experiment. Four different 10 bp RAPD primers were employed for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results...

Author(s): Jamal S. M. Sabir, Mohammed H. Z. Mutawakil,  Amr A. El-Hanafy, and Mohamed M. Ahmed,    

February 2012

Phenotypic analysis of tuber yield- and maturity-related traits in white yam (Dioscorea rotundata)

Inadequate yield potential of available varieties and their long growth periods are two of the factors limiting yam (Dioscorea spp.) production. Identifying yield- and maturity-related traits and breeding for them will enhance production. Ten morphological/physiological traits: time of shoot emergence, time of tuber initiation, plant height, shoot dry weight, time of shoot senescence, tuber fresh weight (tuber...

Author(s): Alieu Sartie, Jorge Franco and Robert Asiedu    

February 2012

Effect of the neurosphere size on the viability and metabolism of neural stem/progenitor cells

The objective of this study was to investigate the metabolic activity and viability of the mouse neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) affected by the size of neurospheres. NSPCs dissociated from the forebrain of embryonic 14 days (E14) mice were cultured in flask for 120 h. During cultivation, the diameter distribution of neurospheres, cell viability and metabolic activities were monitored, together with the...

Author(s): Dan Ge, Kedong Song, Shui Guan, Mingshu Dai, Xuehu Ma, Tianqing Liu and Zhanfeng Cui    

February 2012

LOOP mediated isothermal AMPlification (LAMP) in diagnosis of neorocryptococcosis

As a result of the importance of quick diagnosis of Neurocryptococcosis in patients, generally, molecular techniques are preferred rather than traditional methods for their rapidity. In this research, we made an effort to design and optimize Loop mediated isothermal AMPlification (LAMP) technique using specific primers for ura5 as the target gene for detection of Cryptococcus...

Author(s): Alireza Rezaei Amirabadi, Mohammad Hassan Shahhosseiny and Jalil Vand Yousefi and Mohammad Ghahri    

February 2012

Potential of aeroponics system in the production of quality potato (Solanum tuberosum l.) seed in developing countries

The production of potato seed under conventional system has not been effective in avoiding or reducing the build up of pathogens and has consequently led to reduced quality potato seed and low crop yields. Plants once cleaned through meristem culture and induction of tuberization under aeroponics system, produce high quality potato seed tubers rapidly that are free from contamination of pathogens. Further...

Author(s): Margaret Chiipanthenga, Moses Maliro, Paul Demo and Joyce Njoloma    

February 2012

Interaction of callus selection media and stress duration for in vitro selection of drought tolerant callus of wheat

Callus culture is a novel approach addressing cultured cells as selection units independent of whole plant. Natural variations for drought tolerance existing among cell lines can be exploited in vitro in the presence of suitable concentration of osmoticum and stress duration. The study was aimed to standardized callus selection media and culture duration to select drought tolerant cell...

Author(s): Imran Mahmood, Abdul Razzaq, Ishfaq Ahmad Hafiz, Shuaib Kaleem, Ahmad Ali Khan, Abdul Qayyum, Muhammad Ahmad    

February 2012

Environmental monitoring of soil conditioner effects on photosynthetic parameters of Acer campestre L.

We evaluated photosynthetic reactions in Acer campestre L. in a multi-factorial field experiment near Hodonín, Southern Moravia, Czech Republic. In this experiment, selected plots were amended with three different supplementary soil substances, that is, zeolite, lignite, and hydroabsorbent Agrisorb, and were compared with unamended control plots. Microclimatic parameters, that is, temperature,...

Author(s): Jiri Sochor,, Petr Salas, Helena Skutkova, Petr Babula, Ivo Provaznik, Vojtech Adam, and Rene Kizek,    

February 2012

Identification and nitrogen fixation effects of symbiotic Frankia isolated from Casuarina spp. in Zhejiang, China

Fourteen symbiotic isolates were obtained from root nodules of Casuarina equisetifolia and Casuarina cunninghamiana in Zhejiang, China. All isolates exhibited typical Frankia morphological characteristics, including filamentous hyphae, vesicles, and multilocular sporangia borne terminally or in an intercalary position. Combined with 16S rDNA sequence alignment results, all isolates...

Author(s): Xin Zhang, Aihua Shen, Qiuqin Wang and Youwu Chen    

February 2012

High frequency shoot organogenesis in juvenile leaf of Duchesnea indica (Andr.) Focke

An in vitro cultivation protocol was developed for Duchesnea indica (Andr.) Focke. It is an important medicinal plant in China. Adventitious shoot induction was most successful by using young leaves as explants for propagation on Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium (MS) supplemented with 8.5 µM N6-benzylaminopurine (BA) and 2.0 µM Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). For continuous subculture,...

Author(s): Jiang Xiang-Hui, Gao Jian-Qiang, She Chao-Wen and Xuan Ming Liu    

February 2012

Freezing tolerance of wheat cultivars at the early growing season after winter

Cold stress is a worldwide abiotic stress in temperate regions that affects plant development and yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars and other winter crops. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of freezing stress at the early growing season on survival and also the relationship between resistances tofreezing stress at...

Author(s): M. Saeidi, P. Eliasi, M. Abdoly and S. Sasani    

February 2012

Thermo-aerobic bacteria from geothermal springs in Saudi Arabia

Biodiversity in geothermal springs in Saudi Arabia appears scanty and has not been thoroughly investigated. Geothermal springs are scattered in several areas in Saudi Arabia. Water samples were collected from ten hot springs and analyzed for different physical and chemical parameters. Fifteen isolates of thermo-aerobic bacteria were found. Bacillus cereus, B. licheniformis, B. thermoamylovorans,...

Author(s): Mohammad A. Khiyami, Ehab A. Serour,Maher M. Shehata and Ali H. Bahklia    

February 2012

Antioxidant capacity of extracts from calyx fruits of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)

The antioxidant capacities of extracts of dried roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) calyx and fruit with distilled water ethanol (30, 60 and 95%) were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH), hydroxyl and 2-2’-azino-bis-(3-ethyl-benzthia-zoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical-scavenging assays. The results show that the extract in 30% ethanol always had the highest...

Author(s): Liuqing Yang, Ying Gou, Ting Zhao, Jiangli Zhao, Fang Li, Bingtao Zhangand Xiangyang Wu    

February 2012

Structure and histochemistry of the glandular trichomes on the leaves of Isodon rubescens (Lamiaceae)

The structure and histochemistry of the glandular trichomes on the surface of Isodonrubescens leaves were investigated. The main components in the secretion were identified. Morphological and histochemical study revealed one type of non-glandular and two types of glandular trichomes on the leaves of I. rubescens. These two types of glandular trichomes differed both anatomically and...

Author(s): Meng-qi Liu and Ji-feng Liu    

February 2012

Detection of Dientamoeba fragilis in patients referred to Chaloos Medical Care Centers by nested – polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method

Dientamoeba fragilis is a protozoan that inhabits the human colon and is responsible in degrees for clinical symptoms. These symptoms are: Local stomach pains, loss of weight and appetite and vomiting. Treatment with anti-parasite drugs will improve the symptoms. Due to misdiagnosis, prolonged undesired clinical signs can remain in patient. Diagnosis in stool specimens uses...

Author(s): Ardavan Ghazanchaei, Shohreh Shargh, Mohammad Shabani, Mohammad Najafi and Seyed Manuchehr Nourazarian    

February 2012

Drug-resistant post-neurosurgical nosocomial Acinetobacter baumannii meningitis in two Iranian hospitals

Acinetobacter baumannii may cause meningitis and ventriculitis, particularly after head trauma and/or neurosurgery. The rate of multidrug-resistant Acinetobactermeningitis has increased over the past years. This study was conducted to determine prevalence of drug-resistant post-neurosurgical nosocomial A. baumannii meningitis. During the period of study between 2007 and 2009, a total of 39...

Author(s): Zohreh Aminzadeh and Tofigh Yaghubi    

February 2012

Flesh quality differentiation of wild and cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) populations

Variation in chemical composition and carcass traits among different wild and cultured Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus populations were analyzed to study and compare the differences among different wild (Manzalah lake, Nile river and Edku lake) and cultured Nile tilapia populations. Data of body composition of different Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) populations showed that, the highest mean value of moisture...

Author(s): Samy Yehya El-Zaeem, Mohamed Morsi M. Ahmed, Mohamed El-Sayed Salama and Walid N. Abd El-Kader

February 2012

In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of Vernonia amygdalina water extract

Vernonia amygdalina water extract was previously found as a potential in vitroantioxidant agent. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of V. amygdalina spray dried water extract were quantified by using DPPH radical scavenging assay, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) level and total antioxidant capacity (TAOC). In...

Author(s): Wan Yong Ho, Woon San Liang, Swee Keong Yeap, Boon Kee Beh, Abdul Hadi Noaman Yousr, Noorjahan Banu Alitheen,    

February 2012

Phytochemicals and hypoglycaemic effect of methanol stem-bark extract of Ficus sycomorus Linn (Moraceae) on alloxan induced diabetic Wistar albino rats

This paper reports the hypoglycaemic effect of methanol extract of stem-bark of Ficus sycomorus which was investigated in alloxan induced type-2 diabetic albino Wistar rats. The animals were separated into three groups and each was treated with 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg (body weight) of the extract intraperitoneally. The methanol extract of stem-bark of F. sycomorus significantly...

Author(s): Oumar A. Adoum, Bello O. Micheal and Ibrahim S. Mohammad                            

February 2012

Characterization of pseudorabies viruses produced in mammalian cells by viral genome transfection

The full-length genome DNA of pseudorabies virus (PrV) was transfected into swine testis (ST) cells using calcium phosphate method to generate the infectious viruses. The resulting viruses were identified by indirect immunofluorescence and were used to infect African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells. Our results showed that the produced viruses had similar plaque morphology and growth properties...

Author(s): Yudong Ren, Guangxing Li, Dingding Su, Qing Yang and Xiaofeng Ren    

February 2012

Antioxidant activity of some African medicinal and dietary leafy African vegetables

Seven medicinal and dietary plant species from Southern Africa were analysed for their antioxidant and total phenolic content. These were Lippia javanica, Tagetes minuta, Bidens pilosa, Vigna unguiculata, Amaranthus spinosus, Telfairia occidentalisand Corchorus olitarius. Aqueous methanol extracts were tested for free radical scavenging and anti-oxidant activity using three standard...

Author(s): David R. Katerere, Giulia Graziani, Kaizer M. Thembo, Norman Z. Nyazema and Alberto Ritieni    

February 2012

Genetic diversity of two Tunisian sheep breeds using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis

Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to study genetic diversity and population structure in six sheep populations belonging to two native Tunisian breeds (the Barbarine and the Western thin tail). A total of 96 samples were typed using eight RAPD primers. 62 bands were scored, of which 44 bands (70.97%) were polymorphic. For all populations, Nei’s gene diversity, Shannon index and percentage...

Author(s): Haifa El Hentati, Mohamed Ben Hamouda and Ali Chriki    

February 2012

Evaluation of a reversibly immortalized human hepatocyte line in bioartificial liver in pigs

An appropriate cell source is essential for the clinical application of bioartificial liver (BAL) system. This study aimed to test a reversibly immortalized human hepatocyte line (HepLi-4) in our newly validated choanoid fluidized bed bioreactor based BAL in pigs with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). 15 FHF pigs were allocated to three groups: a BAL group receiving BAL treatment with HepLi-4 cells; a sham BAL group...

Author(s): Lifu Zhao, Jianzhou Li, Guoliang Lv, Anye Zhang, Pengcheng Zhou, Ying Yang, Xiaoping Pan, Xiaopeng Yu, Yimin Zhang, Shusen Zheng, Yu Chen, Yuemei Chen, Chengbo Yu, Weibo Du, Tao Song, Jiansheng Xu, Yang Yuand Lanjuan Li