African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12487

Table of Content: 4 June 2007; 6(11)

June 2007

Regulation and accumulation of secondary metabolites in plant-fungus symbiotic system

  Plants have evolved adaptive strategies to mutualistic microbes penetration for both mycorrhizal fungi and endophytic fungi. Subsequently, an array of host plant defense responses and signal transduction is generated. A group of secondary metabolites are accumulated inducibly or enhanced constitutively in plant tissues during the process. Symbiotic fungi usually perform compatible and friendly...

Author(s): Yuan Zhi-lin, , Dai Chuan-chao and Chen Lian-qing

June 2007

In vitro antibacterial activity of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) root bark extract against some microorganisms associated with urinary tract infections

  The medicinal plant Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) was screened for the phytochemical components and antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa which are associated with urinary tract infections. Aqueous solutions are more potent than methanolic solutions and activity is concentration...

Author(s): El-Mahmood, A. M. and Ameh , J. M.

June 2007

Cytotoxicity and antimicrobial studies of 1,6,8-trihydroxy-3-methyl-anthraquinone (emodin) isolated from the leaves of Cassia nigricans Vahl

  Emodin was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the leaves of Cassia nigricansVahl. The structure of the emodin was established by chemical spectroscopy. The LC50(lower – upper limits) of the emodin was 42.77 (11.80 – 72.94) µg/ml. Emodin was found to be highly cytotoxic. It showed significant antimicrobial activity on some common pathogens. The isolation of this active principle...

Author(s): R. G. Ayo, J. O. Amupitan and Yimin Zhao

June 2007

Isolation of a 60 kDa protein with in vitro anticancer activity against human cancer cell lines from the purple fluid of the Persian Gulf sea hare, Aplysia dactylomela

  Sea hares have greatly attracted the interest of all those investigating chemical defense substances. Most of these substances are low molecular weight compounds derived from algal diets. In vitro anticancer effect of a 60 kDa protein isolated from the purple fluid of Aplysia dactylomela on four human cancer cell lines was investigated in this study. A 60 kDa protein was purified from...

Author(s): Keivan Zandi, Mohammad Hojat Farsangi, Iraj Nabipour, Masoud Soleimani, Khosro Khajeh, Reza Hassan Sajedi and Seyed Mojtaba Jafari

June 2007

Use of some isolated fungi in biological Leaching of Aluminum from low grade bauxite

  In this investigation the biological leaching of aluminum by isolated fungi from low grade bauxite (<50% Al2O3.) was studied. X-ray diffraction investigation indicated that silicate and aluminosillicate minerals were major mineral composition. Wet chemical and electron disperse X-ray analysis showed the presence of aluminum, iron, silica and titanium. Biological leaching tests were carried out using...

Author(s): Y.Ghorbani, M. Oliazadeh, A.shahvedi, R. Roohi, A.Pirayehgar

June 2007

Effect of benzimidazole fungicides and calcium chloride on Alternaria alternata and Penicillium expansum rot during storage of pears

  The present study assayed the effect of the fungicides benomyl, methyl-thiophanate, thiabendazole and calcium chloride on fungal decay of pears caused by Alternaria alternata and Penicillium expansum. Both in vitro and in vivo, the efficacy of fungicides alone against the two fungi was shown to be weak and without any practical interest. In vitro, CaCl2 alone was...

Author(s): Abdelfettah Maouni, Ahmed Lamarti, Anouar Aidoun, Mustapha Khaddorand Alain Badoc

June 2007

Vitamin A status and ocular lesions in some rural Nigerians with onchocerciasis

  The vitamin A and ocular lesions in 98 rural Nigerians who excreted microfilariae in their skin tissues and had at least one clinical manifestation of onchocerciasis were investigated. The highest prevalence rate of 18 (69.2%) occurred among adult males with leopard skin. The overall mean vitamin status of (20.3 ± 2.6 µg/dl) was comparatively lower (χ2 = 41.0; p>0.05) than...

Author(s):   Nmorsi O. P. G, Ukwandu, N. C. D, Egwunyenga, O. A, Anyanwu, L. C, Edafe, J, and Odike, MAC

June 2007

Down regulation of fibulin-1 in squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus

  The molecular events involved in the development of squamous cell oesophageal cancer remain poorly understood. To elucidate the probable genetic events involved, genes that are differentially expressed between normal and tumour oesophageal tissue were identified. Differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was carried out on both malignant and adjacent normal oesophageal tissue of the...

Author(s): Fred Wamunyokoli, Denver Hendricks and Iqbal Parker

June 2007

Production of parthenolide in organ and callus cultures of Tanacetum parthenium (L.)

    The in vitro micropropagation of the seeds of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz-Bip. family Asteraceae was performed on half strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 0.2% gibrellic acid. The explants were in vitro cultured on MS-medium using different plant growth regulators, culture media ingredients and carbon sources. Parthenolide content in the different...

Author(s): Mostafa E. M. Rateb, Seham S. El-Hawary, Ali M. El-Shamy and Essam M. A. Yousef

June 2007

Studies on the use of Zizyphus spina-christi against pain in rats and mice

  Zizyphus spina-christi (Rhamnaceae) grows wild in tropical Africa and Asia and can be domesticated. It has folkloric usage in pain related ailments throughout these regions. In view of the claimed therapeutic potentials, investigation of the plant’s root bark was initiated in our laboratory. The plant material was first sequentially extracted with hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate and methanol, and...

Author(s): Bulus Adzu, and Abdul Kaita Haruna

June 2007

Biosuper as a phosphate fertilizer in a calcareous soil with low available phosphorus

  Laboratory assays were conducted to produce phosphorus (P) biofertilizers from rock phosphate (RP), applying sulphur at different rates of 10, 15 and 20% and inoculated with Thiobacillus. A greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of the biofertilizers in a calcareous soil with low available P from the Qazvin plain of “Qazvin State”, grown with corn (Zea mays L.). The...

Author(s): Besharati, H.  Atashnama, K.  and Hatami, S

June 2007

Effect of different media on the in vitro growth of cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) explants

  The effect of media composition on the growth of cactus explants was investigated. Two media designated A and B were used in this study. Medium A contained basal Murashige Skoog salt (MS salt) and vitamins supplemented with 5% sucrose and 1% BAP (benzyl amino purines) and media B containing vitamins and MS salt supplemented with 3% sucrose, 1.25 mg/l BAP, and 0.25 mg/l IAA (indole acetic acid). These media...

Author(s): B. S. Aliyu and Y. Mustapha

June 2007

Determining the tolerance level of Zea mays (maize) to a crude oil polluted agricultural soil

  This research sought to investigate the tolerance level of Zea mays (maize) on a crude oil contaminated soil using indices of plant performance such as plant height, leaf area and fresh cob yield. In the experiments described, conditions of a major spill were simulated by pouring different amounts of crude oil on experimental pots containing agricultural soil. Maize seeds were then grown amidst...

Author(s): Josiah M. Ayotamuno and Reginald B. Kogbara

June 2007

Studies on degradation of chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbon by using immobilized cell crude extract of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

  In this work Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCIM-2074) has been identified as potential organism to decompose chlorobenzene by its crude extract through immobilization technique. P. aeruginosa was grown on chlorobenzene as sole source of carbon and energy. Chlorobenzene was used as an inducer to develop specific intracellular enzymes which will decompose chlorobenzene to non-toxic substances....

Author(s): R. Manikandan, H. J. Prabhu and P. Sivashanmugam

June 2007

Influence of divalent metal ions on degradation of dimethylsulphide by intact cells of Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m

Dimethylsulphide degradation by intact cells of Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m was stimulated by the addition of divalent metal ions (Ca2+ > Mg2+ > Mn2+). Mixtures of divalent ions were also found to be stimulatory with the exception of the Ca2+ + Mn2+combination (Mg2+ + Mn2+ > Mg2+ + Ca2+ > Ca2+ + Mn2+).   Key words: Thiobacillus...

Author(s): A. Adoki

June 2007

Effect of vitamins and bivalent metals on lysine yield in Bacillus megaterium

  The effects of vitamins and bivalent metals on lysine accumulation in Bacillus strains were investigated. Biotin enhanced lysine production in all the Bacillus strains, while folic acid and riboflavin stimulated lysine yields in Bacillus megaterium SP 86 only. All bivalent metals stimulated lysine accumulation in B. megaterium SP 86 and B. megaterium SP...

Author(s): Ekwealor, I. A. and Obeta, J. A. N.

June 2007

Generation of cell suspensions of East African highland bananas through scalps

  The improvement of East African highland bananas (EAHBs) using conventional breeding methods is difficult due to their biology and therefore focus on improving them has shifted to exploring methods for establishment of embryogenic cell suspensions, which can then be targeted, for genetic transformation. Shoots of four cultivars namely ‘Musakala’, ‘Kibuzi’, ‘Mbwazirume’ and...

Author(s): K. Sadik, P. R. Rubaihayo, M. J. S. Magambo and M. Pillay