African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12487

Table of Content: 8 November 2012; 11(90)

November 2012

Cyclooxygenases: Proliferation and differentiation

  Prostaglandins are formed from arachidonic acid by the action of cyclooxygenase and subsequent downstream synthetases. Mainly two cyclooxygenase isoforms have been identified which are now known as cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2. Both iso-enzymes transform arachidonic acid to prostaglandins, but differ in their distribution and their physiological roles. The two isoenzymes are similar in protein...

Author(s): Hossein Rastegar, Hamid Reza Ahmadi Ashtiani,, Akram Mirzaei and Ali Karimi Bakhshandi

November 2012

Molecular markers for genetic diversity and phylogeny research of Brazilian sheep breeds

  Brazilian sheep descended from several breeds brought to the New World by Portuguese and Spanish colonists, and they have evolved and adapted to local climatic variations and acquired tolerance or resistance to many diseases. Molecular markers are widely used in analyzing genetic variability, and markers such as amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), restriction fragment length polymorphism...

Author(s): Bruno do Amaral Crispim, Márcia Cristina Matos, Leonardo de Oliveira Senoand Alexéia Barufatti Grisolia

November 2012

Molecular characterization and assessment of genetic diversity of sorghum inbred lines

  Selecting parents of diverse genetic base with contrasting phenotype is an important step in developing mapping populations for quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection and marker-assisted selection. We studied genetic diversity in 31 sorghum parents using 413 sorghum simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers. The polymorphism information content (PIC), a measure of gene diversity, varied from 0 to 0.92 with an...

Author(s): R. Madhusudhana, D. Balakrishna, P. Rajendrakumar, N. Seetharama and J. V. Patil

November 2012

Low genetic diversity of Phytophthora infestans population in potato in north China

  Late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans is the most important disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum). This study reveals the genetic diversity of P. infestanspopulation in north China. A total of 134 strains of P. infestans were isolated fromdifferent agricultural fields in Hebei, Liaoning, Jinlin and Heilongjiang Provinces...

Author(s): Yanqing Wu, Jizhi Jiang and Chunshuang Gui

November 2012

Molecular diversity among seven Solanum (eggplant and relatives) species assessed by simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers

  Seven Solanum species (eggplants) were investigated for molecular diversity. Besides its widespread cultivation, nutritional and economic importance, its genome has not been extensively researched. 39 Solanum accessions, a landrace and tomato variety (LBR 48) were molecularly analyzed by simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker technique. A dendrogram was obtained based on...

Author(s): O. T. Adeniji, P. Kusolwa, S. O. W. M. Reuben and Deo, P.

November 2012

Rapid isolation of high molecular weight DNA from single dry preserved adult beetle of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification

  For studying genetic diversity in populations of predatory coccinellid, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera), our attempts to isolate high quality DNA from individual adult beetle using several previously reported protocols and even modifications were quite unsuccessful as the insect size was small and was preserved at -20°C as dry specimen. Here we describe a...

Author(s): Kamala Jayanthi PD, Rajinikanth R, Sangeetha P, Ravishankar KV,Arthikirubha A, Devi Thangam S and Abraham Verghese

November 2012

Chromium stress in Brassica juncea L. cv. 'Pusa Jai Kissan' under hydroponic culture

  Chromium (Cr) entering plant tissue inhibits most physiological processes at all levels of metabolism including inhibition of growth, photosynthesis and nitrate assimilation. Since Cr exists in many forms, its toxicity to plants depends on its valence state, with Cr (VI) found to be highly toxic and mobile than Cr (III). Different concentrations of Cr (0, 25, 50 and 100 µM) in the form...

Author(s): Rehana Hamid, Javid A. Parray, Azra N. Kamili and Mahmooduzzafar

November 2012

The effect of different irrigation levels on the oleuropein contents of olive tree (Olea europaea L. cv. Memecik) in the western coastal region of Turkey

  In this study, the effect of different irrigation levels on oleuropein content of olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Memecik) was researched in the Aegean Region during the crop season of 2007. Six different irrigation water levels of drip irrigation were tested using class A pan evaporation technique [I0 (kpc:0), I0.25 (kpc:0.25), I0.50 (kpc:0.50), I0.75(kpc:0.75), I1.00 (kpc:1.00) and...

Author(s): IÅŸin Yazici, Fatih Karabey, Åžeref Akay, Ünal Kaya and Hatice Demiray

November 2012

Phytoplankton yield changes after enrichment in microcosm experiments: Applications for predicting progressive eutrophication in a mesotrophic lake, South Africa

  Established microcosms containing surface water from the mesotrophic Lake Mokolo were subjected to enrichment of different concentrations with phosphorus. The microcosms were sampled through a 20 day succession period to determine the net effects of increased concentrations of phosphorus in the water column on the phytoplankton community structure during the winter and summer seasons. A significant increase...

Author(s): P. J. Oberholster, P. J. Ashton, A. M. Botha and C. J. Kleynhans

November 2012

Antibacterial activity of Mentha piperita against selected food spoiling bacteria

  Leaf and stem extracts of Mentha piperita plant were tested against four bacterial isolates namely: Bacillus sp. (S1), Bacillus sp. (S2), Bacillus halmapalus andStreptomyces sodiphilus, isolated from commercial Spirulina products. The extraction was carried out with solvents such as petroleum ether, acetone, methanol and ethanol. Antibacterial assay revealed...

Author(s):   Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Shyam Kumar Rajaram, Chinasamy Muthukumar and Nooruddin Thajuddin

November 2012

Repressive efficacy of lactic acid bacteria against the human pathogenic and fish-borne spoilage microbiota of fresh Indian mackerel fish chunks

  Different strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) namely Lactobacillus acidophilus NCIM 2287, Lactobacillus plantarum NCIM 2085, Lactobacillus helveticus NCIM 2126 andLactococcus lactis NCIM 2114 were procured from the National Chemical Laboratory (NCL) Pune, India. These LAB cells were individually (107 cfu/ml) sprayed using a sterile syringe on the...

Author(s): Kannappan Sudalayandi, and Kannar S. Manja

November 2012

Hepatoprotective effect of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) on CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in rats

  The hepatoprotective effect of basil (Ocimum basilicum) extract against liver fibrosis-induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was studied in rats. Rats were allocated into five groups: Group I (control group); Group II [CCl4 group; rats were injected subcutaneously with CCl4 (1 ml/kg b.w.) twice weekly for 4 weeks (phenobarbital, 350 mg/L, was added to the drinking water throughout the experiment)];...

Author(s): Galila A. Yacout, Nihal M. Elguindy and Eman F. El Azab

November 2012

Effect of auxin treatments on male and female cuttings of Hippophae salicifolia

  Hippophae salicifolia (Seabuckthorn) is one of the potential multipurpose underutilised plant species having huge multipurpose benefits including economic and ecological. Effect of different concentrated doses of auxins, on rooting percentage, number of root per rooted cuttings and root length of male and female stem cuttings was examined under open field condition. Results show that the...

Author(s): Dhyani D., Maikhuri R. K. and Shalini Dhyani

November 2012

Evaluation of the wound healing potential of Protea madiensis Oliv leaf extract in rats

  Protea madiensis Oliv. is a flowering shrub which grows in south eastern Nigeria. Liquids extracted from its leaves are applied on wounds to promote healing. To investigate the effect of P. madiensis on wound healing, its methanol extract was applied topically on excision wounds daily. During the experimental period, the rate of contraction, epithelialisation and histology of the wounds were...

Author(s): Udegbunam, S. O., Udegbunam, R. I., Okpo, O. S. and Muogbo, C. J.

November 2012

Isolation and open reading frame 5 gene analysis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Yunnan Province, China

  Two porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), respectively named YN-1 and YN-2 strains, were isolated by inoculation into Marc-145 cell. The two isolated strains induce Marc-145 cell stack together, pull net, form plaque and other typical lesions after 4 blind passages. With extracted viral RNA of fourth generation, reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR based on open reading frame 5...

Author(s):   WANG Qing-lu, ZHANG Shu-guang, LI Fu-xiang, BI Bao-liang, CHAI Jun, WANG Sheng-kui and ZHANG Yi-fang

November 2012

Isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) from dairy cows in China

  Eleven thousand five hundred and eighty non-blood samples from dairy cows were subjected to mycobacterium culture and genotyping. As a result, a total of 142 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MBTC) were identified. Among them, 65 were Mycobacterium tuberculosis, while 77 Mycobacterium bovis. The genotype ofM. tuberculosis strains was mainly Beijing family. In...

Author(s): Yingyu Chen, Siguo Liu, Yujiong Wang, Yanfen Du, Min Li, Shi Cheng, Huanan Wang, Qin Xie, Huanchun Chen and Aizhen Guo