African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12487

Table of Content: 9 February 2012; 11(12)

February 2012

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in Pakistan

Biotechnology in the recent years has emerged as a powerful medium for socio-economic development. A wide array of biotechnological techniques is being developed. Genetically modified crops and genetically modified animals are one ofsuch example in which biotechnology has played a key role. Genetically...

Author(s): Waris Ali Gabol, Aleem Ahmed, Hadi Bux, Kaleem Ahmed, Amanullah Mahar and Shafiullah Laghari    

February 2012

Flooding response in rice: Ethylene networks and sugar signaling

Rice (Oryza sativa) is an aerobic organism, for which oxygen shortage poses a serious problem. Longtime complete submergence leads to damage or even death of the plant. Submergence-tolerant rice adapts to flood (complete submergence) in a long time. Ethylene regulation networks and sugar signaling are involved in the submergence response of rice. This is mainly through the regulation of many key...

Author(s): Qian Dai, Yun Tian, and Xiangyang Lu,    

February 2012

Identification of genes differentially expressed in maize (Zea mays L.) during Rhizoctonia Solani Kühn infection by suppression subtractive hybridization

Banded leaf and sheath blight (BLSB) caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn is an emerging problem in maize worldwide. To study gene expression in maize plants infected by R. solani Kühn, we constructed two suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library using complementary DNA (cDNA) from uninoculated plants as a driver and those from inoculated plants as a tester. After two cycles of...

Author(s): Zhiming Zhang, Li Liu, Haijian Lin, Guangsheng Yuan, Xing Zeng, Yaou Shen, Maojun Zhao, Qi Zhao, and Guangtang Pan                                               

February 2012

Structural analysis of deafness associated E216V mutation in human myosin VI protein

Deafness is the most common form of sensory impairment in humans. Several mutations have been reported in the myosin VI proteins that are responsible for autosomal dominant and recessive deafness. One such missense mutation is that which changes glutamate (E) to valine (V) at amino acid 216 (E216V). The mutation resides in the myosin VI head domain; however, detailed insights regarding the impact of this...

Author(s): Azeem Mehmood Butt, Ishaque Badshah Khan, Asifa Ahmed, Yigang Tong    

February 2012

Cloning and expression of endo-1,4–β-glucanase gene from Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 14580 into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE 3)

An endo-1,4-β-glucanase gene from moderate thermophilic strain Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 14580 was cloned into Escherichia coli DH5α using pTZ57R/T as cloning vector. After confirmation of clone through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction analysis, endoglucanase gene (1.5 kb) was further expressed in E. coliBL21 (DE 3) using pET-22b (+) expression vector. The...

Author(s): Saima Aftab, Muhammad Nauman Aftab, Ikram-Ul-Haq, Muhammad Mohsin Javed, Asma Zafar and Irfana Iqbal    

February 2012

Induction of epigenetic reprogramming in fibroblast by extracts of carcinoma

Recently, differentiated somatic cells had been reprogrammed to pluripotential state in vitro, and various tissue cells had been elicited from those cells. Epigenetic modifications allow differentiated cells to perpetuate the molecular memory to retain their identity. In this study, NIH/3T3 fibroblasts were dedifferentiated with F9 cellular extract, and were detected using the gene expression pattern and...

Author(s): Xi-Mei Zhang, Ning Wang, Dong-Mei Li, Xia Li , Lian-Hong Jin and Lei Lei    

February 2012

Fatty acid composition in two sea cucumber species, Holothuria scabra and Holothuria leucospilata from Qeshm Island (Persian Gulf)

This study was carried out to extract total lipid of two local sea cucumber species,Holothuria scabra and Holothuria leucospilata from Qeshm Island, and the fatty acid composition was determined by capillary gas chromatography. The results show that all species were rich in palmitic acid (C16:0) and arachidonic acid (C20:4n6) of saturated (SFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA),...

Author(s): Maziar Yahyavi, Majid Afkhami, Ali Javadi, Maryam Ehsanpour, Aida Khazaali, Reza khoshnood and Amin Mokhlesi    

February 2012

High plant density by narrow plant spacing ensures cotton productivity in elite cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) genotypes under severe cotton leaf curl virus (CLCV) infestation

This study was conducted to compare the seed cotton yield and cotton leaf curl virus (CLCV) infestations of newly evolved cotton genotypes (MNH-886, MNH-814 and CIM-496) under different plant spacings (15.0, 22.5, 30.0, 37.5 and 45.0 cm) at Cotton Research Station (CRS), Multan (71.43°E, 30.2°N and 122 m above sea level), Pakistan, during two consecutive years, that is, 2008 and 2009. The...

Author(s): Muhammad Iqbal, Saghir Ahmad, Wajad Nazeer, Taj Muhammad, Muhammad Bismillah Khan, Mubshar Hussain, Abid Mehmood, Muhammad Tauseef,  Asifa Hameed and Abdul Karim    

February 2012

Efficient somatic embryo production of Limau madu (Citrus suhuiensis Hort. ex Tanaka) in liquid culture

Effects of N6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) concentration, initial cell density and carbon sources and concentrations for producing cell suspension and somatic embryos of Limau madu (Citrus suhuiensis Hort. ex Tanaka) were investigated using cell suspension culture. Cells were first inoculated into Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium (1962) supplemented with 4.4 to 13.3 µM BAP. Growth rate of cells was at its maximum...

Author(s): Dita Agisimanto, Normah Mohd Noor, Rusli Ibrahim and Azhar Mohamad    

February 2012

The study of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T effects on gene expression at early stages of embryogenesis in chickpea (Cicer arientinum L.)

Factors affecting the induction of embryogenesis in somatic plant cells in vitro are highly variable depending on different growth regulators, explants types, culture media and stress treatments. A series of experiments were set to study the effect of some factors involve in the initiation and development of somatic embryos including genotype, growth regulator and the kind of explants in four Kabuli type...

Author(s): Mahmood Ghorbani-Marghashi, Mansour Gholami, Reaza Maadankan and Hassan Jamshidi    

February 2012

Nutritive value and biochemical changes in broiler chickens fed detoxified castor kernel cake based diets

Castor bean (Ricinus communis Linn.) is an important oilseed rich in protein but rarely used as livestock feed due to antinutritional factors. Castor seed was detoxified using combined processing techniques of moist heating and fermentation (5 and 7- day) or lye treatment and fed to150 day-old Anak 2000 broiler chicks at varying levels (0, 10, 15 and 20%) in a 49-day experiment. There were 10...

Author(s): Akande, T. O. and Odunsi, A. A.    

February 2012

Genetic diversity and bottleneck analysis of Yunnan mithun (Bos frontalis) using microsatellite loci

Mithun or gayal (Bos frontalis) is endemic to the Gaoligongshan Mountains and Drung River Basin in Yunnan, China; a rare and endangered Bos species. To evaluate the genetic diversity and bottleneck effect of Yunnan mithun population, we screened 16 bovine microsatellite loci of Yunnan mithun (N = 34) to provide genetic information for its conservation strategies and breeding programmes. A total of 126...

Author(s): Kai-Xing Qu,, Sang Ngoc Nguyen, Zhan-Xing He, Bi-Zhi Huang, Xi-Ping Yuan, Ya-Ping Zhang and Lin-Sen Zan,    

February 2012

Spatial variability of arsenic in relation with some soil forming factors

Soil and water samples collected from Bijar area were analyzed in order to investigate arsenic contamination sources and their human risk potentiality assessment. Routine physical and chemical characteristics, iron oxides and arsenic contents were measured in 227 soil samples. Spatial variability of arsenic was calculated usinginverse distance weighting (IDW) to assess the arsenic...

Author(s): Kamal Nabiollahy, Ahmad Heidari, Norair Tomanian, Gholamreza Savaghebiand Khosro Mohammadi    

February 2012

Effects of kernel weight and source-limitation on wheat grain yield under heat stress

High temperature in terminal growth stages is a major stress of wheat productivity in South-west Iran, as well as in other Mediterranean environments and the long-term spring temperatures trend to increase. Determination of affecting factors or traits helps to improve the yield potential of wheat. The effects of heat stress during and post anthesis for physiologic, phenologic and agronomic traits was evaluated in ten...

Author(s): Mohtasham Mohammadi,    

February 2012

Effect of source and seed size on yield component of corn S.C704 in Khuzestan

Seed source of corn production (hybrid SC704), desirable seed size and the relationship between seed vigor and seed size on the grain yield of field corn conducted at the Agricultural Research center, Safiabad Dezful in 2008 with 3 replicates was evaluated. In this study, seed source (Khoozestan, Moghan and Khorasan) was used as the main factor and seed size (6, 6.5 and 7 mm) as subplot....

Author(s): M. R. EnayatGholizadeh, A. M. Bakhshandeh, M. Dehghan Shoar, M. H. Ghaineh, K. H. Alami Saeid and M. Sharafizadeh    

February 2012

Performance of polymer compositions as carrier to cowpea rhizobial inoculant formulations: Survival of rhizobia in pre-inoculated seeds and field efficiency

Rhizobial-legume association is a symbiosis that is exploited in agriculture by inoculant production. Efficient inoculant formulations are needed to increase the biological nitrogen fixation rates in agroecosystems. The aim of this work was to evaluate inoculant formulations to cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) containing polymers as carrier materials and rhizobial strains. To assess the efficiency of the new...

Author(s): Paulo Ivan Fernandes Júnior, Elson Barbosa da Silva Júnior, Sebastião da Silva Júnior, Carolina Etienne Rosalia da Silva e Santos, Paulo Jansen de Oliveira, Norma Gouvêa Rumjanek, Lindete Míria Vieira Martins and Gustavo Ribeiro Xavier    

February 2012

In vitro multiple shoot induction through axillary bud of Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels: A threatened medicinal plant

In this study, we describe a method for rapid in vitro multiplication for conservation of a threatened medicinal plant, Cocculus hirsutus (Menispermaceae) via enhanced axillary bud proliferation from nodal explants collected from young shoots of a mature elite plant. The physiological effect of different plant growth regulators such...

Author(s): Mukesh Kumar Meena, Neelam Singh and Vidya Patni    

February 2012

Association analysis of important agronomic traits in japonica rice germplasm

For unraveling complex genetic traits and for marker-assisted selection in plant breeding, using elite germplasm for quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping provides advantages over traditional linkage analysis. Association or linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping revolutionized genetic mapping in humans, and is increasingly being used to examine plant genetics; it has been suggested that it is an efficient way of...

Author(s): Jiangbo Zhou, Aiqing You, Zhujun Ma, Lili Zhu and Guangcun He    

February 2012

Effect of jasplakinolide on the in vitro maturation of bovine oocytes

Jasplakinolide (JAS), a cytotoxic natural product, induces actin polymerization and increases microfilament assembly. The knowledge about the effect of JAS on oocyte meiosis in mammals is limited. The present study was to investigate the effect of JAS on the events of oocyte meiosis such as spindle configuration, chromosome alignment and segregation and oocyte maturation. The results showed that (1) JAS affected oocyte...

Author(s): Chunling Bai, Cheberi, Lei Cheng, Fengxia Yin, Dongsheng Wu, Xihe Li, Bou Shorgan and Guang-Peng Li    

February 2012

Endophytic bacteria with potential for bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons and derivatives

Endophytic microorganisms live inside plants and show no apparent damage for the host. They often assist in plants’ survival and facilitate their growth, or they can metabolize organic contaminants. This study aimed to isolate and identify the endophytic bacteria of plants present in impacted areas, as well as to test their ability in petroleum and their derivatives’ degradation. Plant samples were...

Author(s): Natalia C. de Oliveira, Ariana A. Rodrigues, Maria I. R. Alves, Nelson R. Antoniosi Filho, Geraldo Sadoyama and José Daniel G. Vieira    

February 2012

Effect of frying oils on quality characteristics of frozen chicken patties incorporated with honey

In this study, effect of honey (0, 5 and 10%) and frying oils (palm olein and corn) on physicochemical, proximate characteristics (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), pH, fat, moisture) and sensory properties of frozen chicken patties have been evaluated. TBARS, pH and fat content significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased during storage period of 60 days. Whereas significant (p ≤ 0.05) decrease in moisture...

Author(s): Badriah Alabdulkarim, Zubaida Abdel Nabi Bakeet and Shaista Arzoo

February 2012

Anti-inflammatory activities of enzymatic (alcalase) hydrolysate of a whey protein concentrate

This study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) in mice. Hydrolysis for this experiment was conducted in a pH-stat at 20% degree of hydrolysis. Carrageenan-induced paw edema, peritonitis induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and acetic acid-induced writhing were tested to investigate anti-inflammatory activity. Overall, WPH inhibited carrageenan-induced mice paw edema...

Author(s): Luciano Bruno de Carvalho-Silva, Maria Teresa Bertoldo Pacheco, Rachel Bertoldo, Clarice de Carvalho Veloso, Luciana Costa Teodoro, Alexandre Giusti-Paiva Pablo, Cristhiano Barboza Lollo and Roseli Soncini    

February 2012

Elicitation and precursor feeding influence phenolic acids composition in Vitis vinifera suspension culture

Plant cell cultures have been industrially used for the synthesis of secondary metabolites. Different elicitors, [jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA) and ethephone (E)] and precursors [shicimic acid (SH) and phenylalanine (PHE)] were independently used to enhance the synthesis of phenolics in suspension cultures of Vitis viniferac.v. Muscat de Frontignan followed by chemical analysis with high-performance...

Author(s): Heidi Riedel#, Divine N. Akumo#, Nay Min Min Thaw Saw, Onur Kütük,Peter Neubauer and Iryna Smetanska,    

February 2012

Blood pressure lowering effect of Tylophora hirsuta wall

Crude hydromethanolic extract of Tylophora hirsuta (Th.Cr) was studied in spontaneous hypertensive Wistar rats for possible effects on high blood pressure and heart rate. In the absence of atropine, fall in arterial blood pressure was 64±7 mmHg at the dose of 100 mg/kg while in the presence of atropine, there was no effect on arterial blood pressure suggesting cholinergic receptor blockade. Fall in...

Author(s): Bashir Ahmad, Niaz Ali, Saziq Azam and Shumila Bashir    

February 2012

Effect of weight on osmoregulation ability in Rutilus frisii kutum fingerlings

Experiments were conducted to study the downstream migratory behavior and effects of weight on osmoregulation ability of hatchery-reared Rutilus frisii kutum fingerlings during adaptation to the seawater. Accordingly, blood osmotic pressure regulation ability in kutum fingerlings with weights of 1, 3, 5 and 7 g in three different salinities, 13 ppt (Caspian Sea salinity), 7 ppt (estuarine area) and 0.3 ppt...

Author(s): Seyed Ali Hosseini, Che Roos Saad, Seyed Ahmad Hosseini, Mohammad Sayyad Bourani, Hassan Mohd Daud and Sharr Azni Harmin    

February 2012

Determination of some biochemical values in the blood of Liza klunzingeri from the coastal water of the Persian Gulf

Serum biochemical values can be used for monitoring any change in the fish physiological condition and water quality. The aim of this paper was to determine plasma sugar, triglycerides, cholesterol, iron, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels of Liza klunzingeri from the Persian Gulf. Blood sample was collected from the caudal vessel with syringes coated with sodium heparin....

Author(s): Maria Mohammadizadeh, Majid Afkhami, Kazem Darvish Bastami, Maryam Ehsanpour Aida khazaali and Farzane Soltani    

February 2012

Anti-proliferative activity of recombinant melittin expressed in Escherichia coli toward U937 cells

Melittin, a toxic peptide found in bee venom, has been widely reported to have antimicrobial and anti-proliferative activity in many cell lines. While high-purity natural melittin is rare and expensive, the demand for melittin has increased, making it urgent to find a cheap, suitable method of mass production. In this study, the melittin gene of the Chinese bee (honeybee) was synthesized according...

Author(s): Gui-Mei Kong, Xiao-Rong Zhang , Ke-Yan Wu, Yue-Xiao Liao and Ping Bo    

February 2012

Effect of organic and inorganic selenium supplementation on growth performance, meat quality and antioxidant property of broilers

Ninety-six thousand one-day-old AA broilers were randomly assigned to two groups, 5 replicates in each group, and 9,600 chickens for each replicate. In the control group, 0.3 part per million (ppm) inorganic selenium (Na2SeO3) was added to the diets; while in the experimental group, 0.3 ppm organic selenium (Se-enriched yeast) was added to the same basal diets. The feeding experimental period was 42 days. The...

Author(s): Y. R. Yang, F. C. Meng, P. Wang, Y. B. Jiang, Q. Q. Yin, J. Chang, R. Y. Zuo, Q. H. Zheng and J. X. Liu    

February 2012

Effect of jasplakinolide on the in vitro maturation of bovine oocytes

Jasplakinolide (JAS), a cytotoxic natural product, induces actin polymerization and increases microfilament assembly. The knowledge about the effect of JAS on oocyte meiosis in mammals is limited. The present study was to investigate the effect of JAS on the events of oocyte meiosis such as spindle configuration, chromosome alignment and segregation and oocyte maturation. The results showed that...

Author(s): Chunling Bai, Cheberi, Lei Cheng, Fengxia Yin, Dongsheng Wu, Xihe Li, Bou Shorgan and Guang-Peng Li    

February 2012

Effects of nutraceuticals on knee osteoarthritis: Systematic review

Knee osteoarthritis is the most common form of joint disease and is a major cause of pain and physical disability among the elderly. Although, numerous treatments have been developed to treat osteoarthritis, no definitive treatments with high efficacy and low risk have been identified until now. In recent years, it has been reported that nutraceuticals may be good candidates for the management of knee...

Author(s): Seo Ryang We, Eun-Ok Jeong, Yun Hyung Koog and Byung-Il Min,