African Journal of
Biotechnology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12470

Table of Content: September 2005; 4(9)

September 2005

Human cytomegalovirus infections in premature infants by breastfeeding

Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common cause of congenital and perinatal infections.  Understanding the epidemiology of CMV is a key element in development of strategies for prevention of infection in premature infants.  Breast-fed infants are susceptible to CMV infection from breast milk.  CMV was isolated more frequently from breast milk at more than one month after delivery than from colostrum...

Author(s): Kei Numazaki

September 2005

Molecular markers associated with a new source of resistance to the cassava mosaic disease

The predominant source of resistance to the cassava mosaic disease (CMD) is known to be polygenic requiring evaluation in multiple environments to characterise resistant genotypes, which makes the detection of genes for resistance using segregation analysis inefficient. Recently, some landraces have been identified which exhibit high levels of resistance to CMD. In this study, molecular markers associated with...

Author(s): Y. Lokko, E.Y Danquah, S.K Offei, A.G.O Dixon and M.A Gedil

September 2005

Genetic analysis of some Egyptian rice genotypes using RAPD, SSR and AFLP

Information of genetic similarities and diversity among superior Egyptian rice   genotypes is necessary for future rice breeding programs and derivation of plant lines. Genetic variability and relationships among seven Egyptian rice genotypes namely Giza 178, Giza177, Giza 175, Giza171 Giza 172, Sakha 102, and Sakha 101 were established by using eight RAPD primers, six SSR primer pairs, eight AFLP primer...

Author(s): Mahmoud M. Saker, Sawsan S. Youssef, Naglaa A. Abdallah, Hany S. Bashandy and Ahmed M. El Sharkawy

September 2005

Genetic analysis of Ethiopian mustard genotypes using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers

Genetic diversity within Brassica carinata A. Braun has not been extensively examined with molecular markers. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic relationships among 39 B. carinata genotypes using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). Thirty-nine genotypes of B. carinata were analyzed using six AFLP primer combinations. A total of 189 polymorphic fragments...

Author(s): Tsige Genet, C.D. Viljoen and M.T. Labuschagne

September 2005

Purification and characterization of cellulase from the wild-type and two improved mutants of Pseudomonas fluorescens

Cellulases from the wild-type (WT) and  two improved mutants (catabolite repression resistant mutant 4 and 24, abbreviated CRRmt4 and CRRmt24, respectively) of Pseudomonas fluorescens were purified to apparent homogeneity by ammonium sulphate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography on DEAE Sephadex A-50 and gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. Purification fold of about 5 was obtained for the WT and CRRmt24...

Author(s): M.K. Bakare, I.O.Adewale, A. Ajayi, O.O.Shonukan

September 2005

Microbial utilization of stachyose in soymilk yogurt production

Conventional dairy yogurt starter cultures Lactobacillus bulgaricus andStreptococcus thermophilus were studied for their ability to reduce stachyose in soymilk after 8 h fermentation at 44°C. The bacteria required acclimatization and propagation in soymilk prior to inoculation of fermentation medium.  Plain soymilk fermented by inocula developed from  the starter cultures stored in soymilk...

Author(s): OMOGBAI B.A. , IKENEBOMEH M.J. and OJEABURU S.I

September 2005

Utilization of carbon and nitrogen sources by Streptomyces kanamyceticus M 27 for the production of an Anti bacterial antibiotic

We tested a number of carbon and nitrogen compounds for their effect on the production of an antibacterial antibiotic by Streptomyces kananmyceticus M27. Dextrose was found to be the most suitable carbon source, though maltose, sucrose, and soluble starch gave moderate yields. (NH4)H2PO4 and yeast extract were adequate nitrogen sources for antibiotic production. There was, however, no direct relation...

Author(s): ANURAG PANDEY, ANUPAM SHUKLA   and S.K. MAJUMDAR

September 2005

Effect of mineral concentration of culture media without growth substances on the callogenesis of Atriplex halimus L

The studies on the in vitro culture of the Atriplex halimus, a fooder plant of arid zones of Tunisia, have shown an induction of the callogenesis on intact seedlings cultivated on medium without growth substances. Two media, which differ only by the nature and the concentration of macroelements, were tested. Assays of callogenesis induction were made on media with 1/2, 1/5, 1/10, 1/50, and 1/100 of the usual...

Author(s): Héla El Ferchichi Ouarda

September 2005

Vegetative compatibility of Verticillium dahlia isolated from olive trees (Olea europea L.) in Algeria

25 isolates of Verticillium dahliae obtained from olive trees: 18 of them originating from two regions of Algeria (Nord-ouest and Kabylie), 4 isolates from France and 3 from Syria. They were investigated using complementation tests with nitrate-nonutilizing (Nit) mutants to know their vegetative compatibility. Among 250 chlorate-resistant sectors obtained, only 187 were Nit mutants. Three types of Nit mutants...

Author(s): Miloud Bellahcene, Zohra Fortas, Diana Fernandez and Michel Nicole

September 2005

Growth and development of date palm (Phœnix dactylifera L.) seedlings under drought and salinity stresses

The present investigation has been performed to evaluate date palm (Phœnix dactylifera L.) tolerance to osmotic stress induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG) or NaCl during the early stages of plant development. Two varieties Nakhla hamra (NHH) and Tijib widely cultivated in Mauritania were tested. NHH showed increasing of epicotyl length, primary root length, secondary root number and proline content when...

Author(s): Sané Djibril, Ould Kneyta Mohamed, Diouf Diaga, Diouf Diégane-, Badiane François Abaye, Sagna Maurice and Borgel Alain

September 2005

Growth of maize (Zea mays L.) and changes in some chemical properties of an ultisol amended with brewery effluent

A greenhouse studies was conducted at the University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria to evaluate the effect of brewery effluent on some soil chemical properties and growth of maize. The experiment, which was organised in a completely randomised design, had three replications with 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% effluent concentration in a 2 kg soil. Results showed that organic carbon, N, P, Na, and Mg concentration in the soil...

Author(s): Orhue, Ehi Robert, Osaigbovo, Agbonsalo Ulamen,  Vwioko, Dennis Emuejevoke

September 2005

Effect of Volvariella volvacea cultivaton on the chemical composition of agrowastes

The Mushroom Volvariella  volvacea  was cultivated on various agro wastes. Maximum mycelia extensions were recorded in cotton waste (98.23 ± 0.1 mm) and a combination of rice husk and cotton waste (101.87 ± 0.4 mm). A decrease in moisture content resulted in significant increase percentage crude protein content of mushroom-treated waste compared to the untreated....

Author(s): Akinyele, B.J. and Akinyosoye, F.A.

September 2005

Combining ability for grain yield, agronomic traits and Striga lutea tolerance of maize hybrids under artificial striga infestation

A study was carried out using diallel crosses in maize to determine the general and specific combining abilities in the mode of inheritance of tolerance to Striga lutea. Ten inbred parents of varying tolerance to S. lutea were crossed in half diallel to generate 45 F1 hybrids. The hybrids were evaluated in three striga endemic locations of Southwestern Nigeria under artificial infestation in 1998...

Author(s): S.A. Olakojo and G. Olaoye

September 2005

Evaluation of effect of inoculation of Azospirillum on the yield of Setaria italica (L.)

Inoculation of foxtail millet  (variety Lepakshi) with three strains of Azospirillum lipoferum either alone or in combination with nitrogen fertilizer (40 kg N ha-1) increased the plant height, dry weight of shoot and root, and total N content of shoot, root and grain. The grain yield of the inoculated plants was significantly higher compared to the control plants. Both the panicle and the seed weight...

Author(s): K.V. Bhaskara Rao and P. B. B. N. Charyulu

September 2005

Inhibition of conidial germination and mycelial growth of Corynespora cassiicola (Berk and Curt) of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis muell. Arg.) using extracts of some plants

Twenty-one plants were screened for fungicidal effects on conidial germination and mycelial growth of Corynespora cassiicola. Out of this, 5 plants (Ageratum conyzoides, Centrosema pubescene, Emilia coccinea, Ocimum basilicum andSolanum torvum) were selected for evaluation of concentration effects. Treatment in O. basilicum resulted in the lowest mycelial growth at 100% extract...

Author(s): N. Ogbebor and A.T. Adekunle    

September 2005

The use of Lawsonia inermis linn. (henna) in the management of burn wound infections

The effects of water and chloroform extracts of the leaves of Lawsonia inermis(henna plant) against the primary invaders of burnt wounds was investigated. Clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sp, Pseudemonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Fusarium oxysporum, and Aspergillus nigerwere treated with extracts of the leaves of L. inermis for antimicrobial...

Author(s): H. S. Muhammad and S. Muhammad

September 2005

Soil-transmitted helminthiasis among school age children in Ethiope East Local Government Area, Delta State, Nigeria

The prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminth infections and their relationship to anthropometric indices of 1,351 school children from Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria were evaluated. 739 (54.70%) of the subjects were infected by soil-transmitted helminths (STH). The overall prevalences by species were Ascaris lumbricoides (48.41%), hookworms (29.76%), and Trichuris...

Author(s): EGWUNYENGA, O. ANDY and ATAIKIRU, D. PALMER

September 2005

In vitro antibacterial activity of Synclisa scabrida whole root extracts

Ethanolic, cold water and hot water extracts of the root of Synclisia scabrida were tested, by the agar-well diffusion and macro-broth methods, for activity against clinical and typed strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Staphylococcusaureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus sp. and Bacillus subtilis. The ethanolic extract was bactericidal at the minimum...

Author(s): S. Okoli and C. U. Iroegbu

September 2005

Antimicrobial effects of aqueous and ethanolic fractions of two spices, Ocimum gratissimum and Xylopia aethiopica

Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ocimum gratissimum and xylopia aethiopicawere analyzed for their antimicrobial activities against five pathogenic organisms;Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus fecalis, Pseudomonasaeruginosa and Lactobacilli.  Ethanolic extracts of O. gratissimum had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of...

Author(s): Ijeh I.I., Omodamiro, O.D. and Nwanna, I.J.

September 2005

Pharmacognostic Investigation of Leaves of Mitracarpus vilosus (S.W.) D.C.

Pharmacognostic investigation on fresh, powdered and anatomical sections of leaf of Mitracarpus vilosus (S.W) D.C was carried out to determine its macromorphological, micromorphological and chemomicromorphological profiles. Qualitative and quantitative studies indicated presence of amphicribal vascular bundle arrangement, characteristic asperites, cone-shaped clothing trichomes, simple leaf arrangement...

Author(s): I.A. Jegede, O.F. Kunle, J.A. Ibrahim, G. Ugbabe and J.I. Okogun  

September 2005

Acute toxicity and antioxydant property of Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth (Scrophulariaceae)

Plants containing flavonoids have been reported to possess strong antioxidant properties. The aqueous acetone extract of Striga hermonthica was further separated into aqueous and ethyl acetate fractions and assayed for their in vitro antioxidant properties using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The crude extract exhibits a weak antioxidant activity (IC50 of 95.27±2.30 µg/ml)...

Author(s): Martin KIENDREBEOGO, Marie-Geneviève DIJOUX-FRANCA, Charles Euloge LAMIEN, Aline MEDA, Denis WOUESSIDJEWE, Odile Germaine NACOULMA  

September 2005

Desorption of Pb2+ and Cu2+ from Nipa palm (Nypa fruticans Wurmb) biomass

The desorption of Pb2+ and Cu2+ from Nypa frutican Wurmb biomass originally loaded with these two metals in a batch adsorption experiment was investigated using acidic, basic and neutral desorption solutions. The metal-loaded biomass was treated with 0.1 M HCl, 0.1 M NaOH and distilled water at varying contact time. The data shows that desorption in all the reagent increased with increase in contact...

Author(s): Wankasi, D, Horsfall, M. Jnr and Spiff, A. I.

September 2005

Effect of heat moisture treatment and annealing on physicochemical properties of red sorghum starch

  Red sorghum starch was physically modified by annealing and heat moisture treatment. The swelling power and solubility increased with increasing temperature range (60-90°), while annealing and heat-moisture treatment decreased swelling power and solubility of starch. Solubility and swelling were pH dependent with higher values obtained at pH 12 in both native and modified starches. Water absorption...

Author(s): Kayode O. Adebowalea, Bamidele I. Olu-Owolabi a, Olufunmi O. Olayinkaa, and Olayide S. Lawalb

September 2005

Evaluation of maize-soybean flour blends for sour maize bread production in Nigeria

Examination of the functional properties of three different flours/meals and two blends of maize meal and soybean-flour (ratios 9:1 and 8:2, maize:soybean) were carried out. Properties examined included amylose content, bulk density, dispersibility, swelling power, water absorption capacity and visco-elastic properties. The effect of the different flour/meal samples on the properties of sour maize bread were evaluated...

Author(s): Edema, Mojisola O.; Sanni, Lateef O. and Sanni, Abiodun I.

September 2005

Some haematological changes in hybrid catfish (Heterobranchus longifilis x Clarias gariepinus) fed different dietary levels of raw and boiled jackbean (Canavalia ensiformis) seed meal

Changes were observed in some haematological parameters of juvenile hybrid catfish (Heterobranchus longifilis x Clarias gariepinus) fed raw and 60 min-boiled jackbean seed meal (JBSM) at different dietary levels for 56 days. The haematocrit (packed cell volume, PCV), red blood cell (RBC) count, white blood cell (WBC) count and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration decreased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing...

Author(s): D.I. Osuigwe, A.I. Obiekezie and G.C. Onuoha

September 2005

Studies on the morphology and compatibility between Schistosoma hæmatobium and the Bulinus sp. complex (gastropoda: planorbidae) in Cameroon

A description is given of the morphological variation of the shell, the radula features and the copulatory organ of Bulinus sp. (2n=36) from four populations in the western Cameroon crater lakes. To assess the role of diploid snails belonging to the Bulinus natalensis/tropicus complex in the transmission of urinary schistosomiasis in Cameroon, the relation between Bulinus sp. (from four Cameroon crater lakes) and...

Author(s): Ndassa  Arouna and Mimpfoundi  Remy

September 2005

Morphological characteristics and egg production of forced-moult layers under different moult induction techniques

A study was conducted to investigate the morphological characteristics and egg production of forced-moult layers. Different feeding patterns designated T1, T2 and T3 representing ad libitum supply of feed and water, no feed but water given ad libitum and no feed or water, respectively, were used to induce moult. T1 served as the control. One hundred and twenty 84-week old layers in their 64 weeks in...

Author(s): M. A. Oguike, G. Igboeli, S.N. Ibe, M. Uzoukwu S. C. Akomas and M.O. Ironkwe

September 2005

Plasma progesterone profile and ovarian activity of forced-moult layers

Different techniques of moult induction were used to force moult 360 commercial old layers, aged 85 weeks. The techniques were: natural day length with feed and water ad libitum, natural day length with water but no feed, natural day length with no feed and no water, reduced day length with feed and water ad libitum, reduced day length with water but no feed, reduced day length with no feed and no water,...

Author(s): M.A. Oguike G. Igboeli S.N. Ibe and M. Uzoukwu  

September 2005

Studies on the physico-chemical parameters of Omi water body of Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria

In Omi water body, the physico-chemical parameters such as dissolved oxygen ranged from 1.4 to 4.8 mg/L; pH, 6.7 to 7.2; temperature, 26.5 to 31.5°C; alkalinity, 24.2 to 25.4 ppm; conductivity, 23.0 to 28.3 Ohms/cm; turbidity 0.11 to 0.15 m; and free carbon dioxide from 3.5 to 4.5 mg/L. Dissolved oxygen, pH and water temperature serve as variables since the fluctuation of one affects the values of others. The...

Author(s): Fafioye, O. O., Olurin, K.  B., and Sowunmi, A.A.  

September 2005

Prevalence of community-associated multi-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among healthy women in Abuja, Nigeria

Antimicrobial resistance has become a great public health problem worldwide and multi-drug resistance Staphylococcus aureus has been widely reported. This study determined the pattern of resistance to ten commonly used antibiotics. Urine samples collected from healthy women volunteers in the Abuja were cultured and screened for S. aureus using standard microbiological procedures. The antibiotic susceptibility of the...

Author(s): ONANUGA,  A., OYI, A. R., OLAYINKA, B.O. and ONAOLAPO, J. A.