African Journal of
Environmental Science and Technology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Environ. Sci. Technol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0786
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJEST
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 1037

Full Length Research Paper

Effect of spilled engine oil on soil quality indicators and physiological performance of maize, cowpea and sorghum

Joshua Yeboah Asiamah
  • Joshua Yeboah Asiamah
  • Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Ghana.
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Emmanuel Plas Otwe
  • Emmanuel Plas Otwe
  • Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Ghana.
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Andrews Danquah
  • Andrews Danquah
  • Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Ghana.
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Samuel Obeng Apori
  • Samuel Obeng Apori
  • African Center of Excellence in Agroecology and Livelihood System, Faculty of Agriculture, Uganda Martyrs University, Uganda.
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Emmanuel Hanyabui
  • Emmanuel Hanyabui
  • Department of Soil Science, School of Agriculture, University of Cape Coast, Ghana.
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  •  Received: 03 March 2021
  •  Accepted: 07 July 2021
  •  Published: 31 July 2021

Abstract

Soil contamination through oil spillage accumulates in the soil and affect plant growth. The study was conducted to examine the effect of spilled engine oil on soil nutrients and germination of seed in the in the Central region of Ghana. Ten samples were collected randomly from selected mechanic and fitting sites in the Elmina municipality. A randomized complete block design using three test crops was used to evaluate soil quality indicators such as N, P, K and soil pH on the polluted soil using standard methods. Maize recorded 3.67, 18.5 and 3.7% germination in contaminated soils from Aponkyedasoro, Nippon and Afitafum, respectively. Cowpea and sorghum recorded no germination in these soils. The three crops showed higher germination rates in the control soils, with the highest being recorded in sorghum (72.2%), followed by cowpea (70.4%) with the least being recorded in maize (66.6%). The results showed that nitrogen (N) level in the experimental soil was very low (0.065-0.075%) as compared to the control (0.115%) in this study. However, polluted soil from Aponkyedasoro, Afitafum and Nippon recorded a higher level of phosphorus (60.84-31.58 µg/g) and potassium (0.52-0.58 µg/g) than control (P=20.97 µg/g; K=0.43 µg/g) despite having a low germination rate. Copper, zinc, sodium and iron concentration were higher in the engine oil-polluted soil. The study revealed that the concentration of heavy metals and spilled engine oil in the soil has a higher effect on plant development; hence, public awareness should be created of its detrimental effect on the ecosystem.

 

Key words: Contamination, germination, heavy metals, soil fertility.