African Journal of
Environmental Science and Technology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Environ. Sci. Technol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0786
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJEST
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 1126

Full Length Research Paper

Physico-chemical characteristics of surface and groundwater in Obajana and its environs in Kogi state, Central Nigeria

O. K. Musa*
  • O. K. Musa*
  • Department of Geology, Federal University Lokoja, P.M.B 1154, Kogi State, Nigeria.
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E. A. Kudamnya
  • E. A. Kudamnya
  • Department of Geology, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
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A. O. Omali
  • A. O. Omali
  • Department of Earth Sciences, Kogi State University Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria.
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T. I. Akuh
  • T. I. Akuh
  • Department of Geology, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
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  •  Received: 27 March 2014
  •  Accepted: 01 August 2014
  •  Published: 30 September 2014


The present work was aimed at assessing the surface and groundwater quality of the area within and around Obajana using physico-chemical characteristics. Surface and groundwater samples were collected at the peak of dry season in March, 2013, from 24 locations within Obajana and its surrounding areas and were subjected to a comprehensive quality analysis. The following parameters were considered; pH, total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, redox, potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, chloride, nitrate, sulphate and bi-carbonate. Different statistical tools were used to analyse the results. Piper diagrams and Schoeller plots were used to suggest models for predicting water quality. Results from the physico-chemical analysis revealed that the concentrations of the analyzed parameters were within the acceptable limits for drinking water recommended by the World Health Organisation except for iron which had elevated concentration in one location. Surface and groundwater within Obajana and environs are thus considered safe for drinking and domestic use with respect to these analyzed parameters but needs to be protected from the perils of contamination by pollution from the continuous production of cement from the cement company over time. Plots on Piper and Schoeller diagrams indicate a Ca-Mg- HCO3- water type.


Key words: Obajana, water resources, physico - chemical, cation, anion and pollution.