African Journal of
Environmental Science and Technology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Environ. Sci. Technol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0786
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJEST
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 1126

Full Length Research Paper

Sublethal effects of cadmium, manganese, lead, zinc and iron on the plasma electrolytes regulation of mice, Mus Musculus

Osuala, Fidelia Ijeoma1*, Otitoloju, Adebayo Akeem1 and Igwo-Ezikpe, M. N.2
  1Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, University of Lagos, P.M.B. 101017, Lagos, Lagos State, Nigeria. 2Faculty of Basic Medical sciences, Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, P.M.B. 12003, Lagos, Lagos State, Nigeria.
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 29 August 2013
  •  Published: 30 September 2013



      The toxicological evaluations of cadmium, iron, manganese, lead and zinc were carried out against albino mice model, Mus musculus. On the basis of 96 hrLC50 value, cadmium (0.47 mM) was found to be the most toxic followed by zinc (2.40 mM), lead (2.42 mM), iron (4.25 mM) and manganese (5.70 mM) was least toxic. This study also evaluated the sublethal effects of cadmium, manganese, lead, zinc and iron in plasma samples utilising plasma electrolyte parameters as a biomarker using an albino mice model, M. musculus. Mice were subjected to sublethal concentrations of the selected heavy metals (1/10th of 96 hrLC50). Blood plasma was collected after 7, 14, 21 and 28 days in long term experiment. Sodium (Na+), potassium (k+), chloride (Cl-) ions bicarbonates (HCO3-), calcium (Ca2+) and phosphates (P043-). Studies on the effect of heavy metals on plasma electrolytes revealed that Pb caused elevated level of sodium (Na+), while Cd induced significant (P < 0.05) increase in potassium (k+) and chloride (Cl-) ions in treated mice groups. In addition, bicarbonates (HCO3-) and phosphates (P043-) levels increased significantly (P < 0.05) in treated mice exposed to Mn and Fe, respectively. The outcome of this study implied that heavy metals have toxic effects and plasma electrolyte is a useful tool for early detection and diagnosis of heavy metals pollution in the mammalian model.


Key words: Electrolyte, blood plasma, heavy metals, Mus musculus.