African Journal of
Environmental Science and Technology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Environ. Sci. Technol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0786
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJEST
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 1105

Full Length Research Paper

Microbiological quality of stream and borehole water in Lushoto District, Tanzania

  • Lucy M. CHOVE
  • Department of Food Science and Agro-processing, School of Engineering and Technology, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P. O. Box 3006, Chuo Kikuu, Morogoro, Tanzania.
  • Google Scholar
  • Hadija ATHUMANI
  • Tanzania Bureau of Standards, P. O. Box 9524, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 22 January 2023
  •  Accepted: 14 March 2023
  •  Published: 31 March 2023


A study was conducted to assess the microbiological quality of water in two streams and three boreholes from Sunga and Mbaru wards in Lushoto district, Tanzania. Water samples were collected in duplicate from the streams and boreholes. Three locations were selected along the stream including unpopulated forest areas, highly populated and less populated areas both with agricultural activities. Analysis of data was done by R-Software and means separated by Turkey‘s honest significance test at p<0.05. Significant differences (p<0.05) in Escherichia coli and Salmonella contamination were observed along the three locations of the streams. Although the unpopulated forest areas were not contaminated by either microorganism except for one sample, the rest of the areas were contaminated. Highly populated agricultural areas were found to be contaminated by E. coli and Salmonella, followed by the less populated agricultural areas. Generally, water samples from the streams failed to meet the TZS 789 Standard and WHO 2011 water guidelines, a risk to water borne disease outbreaks. With the exception of E. coli from boreholes in Madukani, all other borehole water samples were within the limits stipulated in both the TZS 789 Standard and WHO 2011 Guidelines. Communities should be warned about the dangers of water contamination especially at the sources. In addition, water should be treated regardless of its source to improve its safety and quality for human consumption.


Key words: Water, Escherichia coli, Salmonella species, safety, quality, contamination, WHO.