African Journal of
Environmental Science and Technology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Environ. Sci. Technol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0786
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJEST
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 1105

Article in Press

Bacteriological quality of drinking water sources in rural communities of open defecation free Villages of sire District, South East Ethiopia

Tesfaye Legesse 1*,Tadesse Getahun 2,Sintayehu Bedada2, Shimelis Adugna2

  •  Received: 16 October 2017
  •  Accepted: 04 September 2018
Introduction: A high proportion of waterborne disease outbreaks that are most often originating from pathogens, which found in drinking water sources due to fecal contamination. Both developed and developing countries may face the pollution problems of water sources, invariably though they are the most prevalent issues in the third world nations. Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the bacteriological quality and to determine the risk status as well as to identify the potential sources for contaminations of the drinking water sources in rural open defecation free Kebeles. Methodology: Cross-sectional study design was applied to determine the70 samples of water sources for bacteriological quality of drinking water sources using the membrane filtration method by Wagtech Water Test Kit. Similarly, the major sources for contamination of drinking water sources were identified by using the sanitary inspection checklist designed by the World Health organization. Proportionate random sampling and a statistical package of social science version 21 was used for sampling techniques and data analysis methods respectively. The results: Among 70 samples of water sources, 53 (75.7%), 39 (55.7%) and 33 (47.1%) of a sample of water sources had positive results for Total coliform, Fecal coliform, and E. coli bacteria, respectively. In general, 55.7% samples of water sources in the study area were not met the World health organization guidelines for bacteriological quality parameters of drinking water. In addition, most samples of water sources (38.6%) were found under medium risk category. Pipe cracks or leakage on the attached tank and stand post, stagnant water, presence of animal excreta were some factors and more associated with contamination of stand taps, protected wells with hand pump and spring on spot water sources. Faulty drainages, animal access; lack diversion ditch is also a major source of contamination spring on spot water sources. Conclusion and recommendation: -Most protected drinking water sources in the study area were not compliance with standards of bacteriological water quality even though those villages have been declared open defecation free (ODF) and their drinking water sources are protected. These water sources raise a concern about the safety that used for drinking purposes. Hence, these water sources require regular disinfection, proper management, maintenances, and monitoring and regular control mechanisms to ensure their safety.

Keywords: Drinking water sources, Coliforms, E. coli, Risks, ODF, Sire, Ethiopia