Water pollution has become a global problem. Human population and rapid industrialization generates high volume of toxic wastes in the aquatic environment with negative impacts on aquaculture production. Heavy metal contamination of aquatic ecosystems has been seen as a serious problem of aquatic pollution. Lead is a common non-biodegradable heavy metal which accumulates in fish tissues. The major sources of lead in the environment come from mining industrial waste discharges, mechanics, pesticides (biocides), fertilizers, automobile emissions, battery manufacturing amongst others. Heavy metals are absorbed by fish and result in abnormalities, low immune function, and pathological alterations with consequent inhibition of metabolic processes, hematological changes and decline in fertility and survival. Vitamins are organic compounds in the diet of fish for healthy growth. Vitamin E is an antioxidant. Antioxidant causes reduction in stress and protects the cells from the effects of free radicals causing oxidative damage that leads to cell death. They protect blood cells and prevent the development of diseases.VE has also been shown to play a role in immune function, DNA repair, and some metabolic process as well. Lead and dietary supplementation of vitamins E reduce muscle lead content. Therefore, lead is a dangerous pollutant among all heavy metals which threatens the aquatic environment. Hence proactive measures are required in preventing and reducing non-point and point source pollution in aquatic environment. Government should enforce laws ensuring industries make use of standard waste treatment plants before discharging into environment.
Keywords: Vitamins, Antioxidants, Lead, Pollution, Toxic waste, Metal.