African Journal of
Medical and Health Sciences

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Med. Health Sci.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2384-5589
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJMHS
  • Start Year: 2017
  • Published Articles: 78

Prevalence and Risk Factors for Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Gastroduodenal Diseases in Kano, Nigeria

Ahmad Kumo Bello
  • Ahmad Kumo Bello
  • Department of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, P. M. B. 06, Shika ‑ Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
  • Google Scholar
Ali Bala Umar
  • Ali Bala Umar
  • Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Departments of Pathology.
  • Google Scholar
Musa Muhammad Borodo
  • Musa Muhammad Borodo
  • Medicine, Bayero University Kano, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 01 January 2018
  •  Accepted: 01 May 2018
  •  Published: 30 June 2018


Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been well noted as a causative agent of many diseases in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract notably, gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric adenocarcinoma. Determining the burden and the risk factors for acquiring this infection may be crucial to containing it and its sequelae in Kano, Nigeria.

Methodology: The study was cross‑sectional in design. Questionnaires were administered in dyspeptic patients to obtain the relevant clinical, and sociodemographic data. Upper GI endoscopy was performed in the patients, and gastric biopsy specimens were taken and sent to the histopathology laboratory for assessment and H. pylori identification.

Results: Of the 306 participants, 136 (44.4%) were males, while 170 (55.6%) were females, with male: female ratio of 1:1.3. The ages of the participants ranged from 18 to 84 years with a mean of 41.2 ± 15.3 years. Of the 306 samples, 250 (81.7%) were positive for H. pylori. This gives H. pylori prevalence of 81.7%. Only 4 (1.3%) of the participants belonged to the higher social class, out of which 25% had positive H. pylori, while 230 (75.2%) participants belonged to the lower socioeconomic class with 87.8% H. pylori prevalence. The lower social class had a significant association (P < 0.0001) with increased H. pylori infection. A total of 290 subjects (94.8%) shared a room with three or more other siblings in childhood, out of which 233 (80.3%) had H. pylori. Only 80 subjects (26.1%) used pipe‑borne water in childhood, while 226 (73.9%) sourced their water from either well, pond or stream during childhood.

Conclusion: This study showed a high prevalence of H. pylori in Kano, and low socioeconomic status, unclean water source, overcrowding, and cigarette smoking were significant risk factors for H. pylori infection.

Keywords: Histology, prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Kano, risk factors, water source.