African Journal of
Medical and Health Sciences

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Med. Health Sci.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2384-5589
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJMHS
  • Start Year: 2017
  • Published Articles: 78

Prevalence and Antibiogram Pattern of Salmonella enterica Serotypes in Garhwal Region: First Report from Foothills of Himalayas

Vikrant Negi
  • Vikrant Negi
  • Department of Microbiology, Dr. Sampurnanand Medical College, Jodhpur, Rajasthan,
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Monika Pathania
  • Monika Pathania
  • Department of Medicine, AIIMS, Rishikesh,
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Rajat Prakash
  • Rajat Prakash
  • Department of Microbiology, AIIMS, New Delhi
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Deepak Juyal
  • Deepak Juyal
  • Department of Microbiology, Government Doon Medical College, Dehradun, Uttarakhand
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Munesh Kumar Sharma
  • Munesh Kumar Sharma
  • Department of Microbiology, Amaltas Institute of Medical Sciences, Dewas, Madhya Pradesh, India
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Shekhar Pal
  • Shekhar Pal
  • Department of Microbiology, Government Doon Medical College, Dehradun, Uttarakhand
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  •  Received: 01 January 2018
  •  Accepted: 01 May 2018
  •  Published: 30 June 2018


Introduction: Enteric fever, caused by Salmonella enterica subsp. Enterica serotype Typhi and Paratyphi, is endemic in India with an incidence of 102–2219/100,000 populations. The definitive diagnosis of enteric fever in patients with compatible clinical picture is isolation of Salmonellae from blood, bone marrow, stool or urine, and demonstration of four‑fold rise in antibody titer to both O and H antigen of the organism between acute and convalescent‑phase sera.

Aim: The aim of the study was to study the prevalence of various serotypes of S. enterica and their antibiogram in foot hills of Himalayas. 

Materials and Methods: During February 2012–January 2013, all clinically suspected patients were screened for enteric fever by Widal tube agglutination test. For the isolation of etiology, venous blood, stool and urine specimen were obtained from patients with antibody titer of ≥80 and 160 for anti‑O agglutinin and anti‑H agglutinin of Salmonella typhi, respectively, and ≥20 for anti-H agglutinin of S. paratyphi A and S. paratyphi B. Characterization and antibiogram determination of the isolates was done by conventional microbiological methods including Kirby–Bauer’s disc diffusion technique.

Result: Among 1173 suspected cases, 373 showed a high titer of antibodies against O (≥80), H (≥160), AH (≥20), and BH (≥20) antigens. A total of 81 isolates were obtained from 76 patients (29 from blood and 49 from stool and three from urine), of which 54 were identified as Salmonella typhi, 20 as Paratyphi A and seven as Paratyphi B. Extended‑spectrum beta‑lactamase production was observed in four isolates of S. typhi. Ciprofloxacin followed by co‑trimoxazole was resistant to 46.5 and 36.5% of the isolates, respectively.

Conclusion: This report indicates a significant percentage of drug resistance in S. enterica serotypes in Garhwal region. Periodic monitoring of the antibiogram pattern along with the implementation of strict antibiotic policies and patient education is needed.

Keywords: Blood culture, extended‑spectrum beta‑lactamase, Salmonella typhi, typhoid fever, Widal test.