African Journal of
Medical and Health Sciences

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Med. Health Sci.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2384-5589
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJMHS
  • Start Year: 2017
  • Published Articles: 79

Full Length Research Paper

Determinants of pre-cervical cancer among women visiting Hawassa University Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia: A case control study

Abiy Semunigus Dejene
  • Abiy Semunigus Dejene
  • Pharma Health Science College, Hawassa, Ethiopia.
  • Google Scholar
Dejene Hailu
  • Dejene Hailu
  • Hawassa University, Hawassa ,Ethiopia.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 14 February 2020
  •  Accepted: 15 June 2020
  •  Published: 31 August 2020


Cervical cancer is the most common and lethal form of cancer occurring among women of sub- Saharan Africa and Ethiopia. Despite its wider occurrence, cervical cancer is preventable and curable if it is diagnosed and treated in its pre-cancerous stage. Recognizing the risk factors associated with pre- cervical cancer lesion is important to design appropriate strategies for prevention of cervical cancer. However, studies on risk factors associated with pre-cervical cancer lesion in women are limited in Ethiopia as well as in the study location. A hospital based unmatched case control study was conducted at Hawassa university, Comprehensive Specialized Hospital. Bivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the strength of association between the outcome and explanatory variables. Association was declared when p-value is < 0.05. Predictive variables whose P-value is <0.25 in crude analysis were included in the final multivariate analysis. A backward stepwise approach was conducted and statistically significant association was declared based on adjusted odd ratio (AOR), 95% confidence interval (CI) and P-value <0.05. Findings from multivariate analysis showed contraceptive use [AOR: 5.16, CI (2.97-8.96)], pattern of irregular menstrual bleeding [AOR: 6.03, CI (3.40-10.69)], history of STI [AOR: 4.02, CI (2.28-7.10)] and HIV/AIDS reactive status [AOR: 7.41, CI (4.38-12.56)] were found to be independent predictors of pre- cervical cancer lesion. Being using contraceptive, having STI history, having irregular menstrual bleeding pattern and having HIV/AIDS reactive status increase the risk of developing pre-cervical cancer. These high risk groups should be encouraged to have regular screening for pre-cervical cancer.

Key words: Pre-cervical cancer, visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), risk factors, cervical cancer.



AOR, Adjusted odd ratio; COR, crude odd ratio; CI, confidence interval; SD, standard deviation; STI, sexual transmitted infection; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; AIDS, acquired immune deficiency syndrome; VIA, visual inspection with acetic acid; WHO, world Health organization; VILI, visual inspection with Lugol's iodine; FRD, folate receptor-mediated staining solution; HPV, human papilloma virus; UNAIDS, United Nations AIDS; SNNPR, South Nation Nationalities People Region.