African Journal of
Microbiology Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Microbiol. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0808
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJMR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 5210


Bluetongue: Virus proteins and recent diagnostic approaches

Molalegne Bitew1,2*, Sukdeb Nandi1 and Chintu Ravishankar1
1Virus laboratory, Center for Animal Disease Research and Diagnosis (CADRD), Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), 243 122, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India. 2Jimma University, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, P. O. Box, 307, Jimma, Ethiopia.
Email: [email protected] or [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 27 December 2013
  •  Published: 29 December 2013


virus. Bluetongue virus is a member of the genus Orbivirus in the family Reoviridae. Its genome consists of ten double-stranded (ds) RNA segments coding for seven structural proteins (VP1-VP7) and four non-structural proteins (NS1-NS3 or NS3A, and NS4). At present, 26 serotypes have been reported throughout the world. Bluetongue can be diagnosed from several kinds of samples. For virus isolation, embryonated eggs, 9 to 12 days old, at intra­venous inoculation is best however, cell lines like KC line, the insect cell line C6-36 derived from Aedes spp., Baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) and  African green monkey kidney (Vero) lines can be used. For antigen identification sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), serotype specific reverse transcriptase Polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Serogroup-specific RT-PCR, Real time quantitative PCR, Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis (targeting conserved genome segments), Restriction enzyme profile analysis (REPA), Molecular probes, RNA polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (RNA-PAGE) are now available in an increasing number of laboratories for the identification of Bluetongue virus (BTV). For antibody identification, it is possible to use blocking ELISA, competition ELISA, indirect ELISA, agar-gel immunodiffusion test (AGID), Complement-fixation test (CFT) and Haemagglutination inhibition test (HI), serum or virus neutralisation test (VNT/SNT), Immunofluorescence, Immunoperoxidase, and Dot immunobinding assays (DIA).


Key words: Antibody, antigen, bluetongue, bluetongue virus, diagnosis, structure, molecular technique.