African Journal of
Microbiology Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Microbiol. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0808
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJMR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 5210

Full Length Research Paper

Effect of Avid® on the synnema-like formation of Aspergillus flavus grown on Czapek medium

K. Danmek1,2, S. Prasongsuk2, P. Lotrakul2, K. E. Damann3, D. E. Eveleigh4 and H. Punnapayak2*
1Biotechnology Program, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand. 2Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Plant Biomass Utilization Research Unit, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand. 3Department of Plant Pathology and Crop Physiology, LSU Agcenter, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA. 4Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901-8525, USA.  
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 29 August 2011
  •  Published: 16 September 2011


The effect of Avid® on the induction of synnema-like structure of Aspergillus flavus (61 strains) grown on various types of agar media was investigated. Other related species of Aspergillus within the section FlaviA. parasiticus (14 strains), A. nomius (14 strains), A. psuedotamarii (2 strains),A. tamarii (20 strains) and A. oryzae (5 strains), were also evaluated for comparison. When Avid®was added into five different solid media (Czapek, V8, Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, corn meal and potato dextrose agar) at 0.004% (v/v), only the A. flavus strains (all 61 tested) were able to produce synnema-like structures, and only in the Czapek agar medium containing Avid®. The effect of carbon (sucrose, glucose and starch) and nitrogen (NaNO3, urea and peptone) sources in Czapek medium containing Avid® on the induction of a synnema-like structure was also determined, with synnema-like structure induction being found in all three carbon sources but only in NaNOas the nitrogen source. All the three of the inert solvents in Avid® (mineral oil, butylated hydroxytoluene and n-methylpyrrolidone) did not induce synnema-like structure formation, indicating that abamectin, an active ingredient of Avid® together with NaNOlikely play important roles in the induction of synnema-like structure of A. flavus.


Key words: Aspergillus flavus, Avid®, synnema-like structure.