Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are one of the most applied bacteria in the production of fermented foods, from dairy to fruits and vegetables products. They make food durable, improve food safety, flavor, and texture as well as to enhance food physiological and hygienic value due to the presence of viable cells and valuable. Besides, products obtained by LAB fermentation processes are of special importance for functional foods such as probiotics. Lactobacillus acidophilus is the best well-known species of this Lactobacillus complex in LAB group and exist in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. In fermented food, the metabolic activity of this microorganism results in production of flavor, and aroma that cause organoleptic properties of fermented foods and inhibits foods spoilage. L. acidophilus effect on modulation of host immunity is proved by clinical evidence but molecular and cellular mechanisms of these effects are not completely clear. Despite the increasing application of this bacterium, little is known about its effects on the gut community, host physiology and immunity. The molecular mechanisms by which L. acidophilus exert these effects are not clearly understood. In this regard, recognition of cell structures and the genomic base of this bacterium could be useful. In this paper we try to gather all the information that exists about this bacterium.
Key words: Lactobacillus acidophilus, structure, fermented food, probiotic.
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