The spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has become a challenge to the global tuberculosis control and prevention program.Nevertheless, no adequate information has been made available on the drug susceptibility status of M. tuberculosis in Ethiopia. Hence, this study aimed atevaluating the drug resistance patterns of M. tuberculosis in the three sites of Ethiopia and its association with socio-demographic factors. A total of 102 M. tuberculosis isolates obtained from tuberculosis (TB) patients from three different sites were tested for drug susceptibility against the first and second-line anti-TB drugs using the proportion method on enriched Middle Brook 7H10 agar. The result showed that 36.3% of the isolates were resistant to at least one of the first line anti-TB drugs used in this study. The proportions of mono-resistance were 29.4, 13.7, 13.7 and 23.5% to isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin and ethambutol, respectively. The proportion of MDR M. tuberculosis was 11.8%. Only 55% of the isolates were susceptible to all the second line anti-TB drugs used in this study. One isolate (1%) was extensively drug-resistant (XDR). The occurrence of MDR M. tuberculosisisolates was not associated with sex, age, anti-TB treatment history, HIV status andlocation. The findings of this study showed moderate number of MDR M. tuberculosis isolates in the study area, warranting the necessity of the surveillance and monitoring.
Key words: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, drug resistance, Ethiopia
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