African Journal of
Microbiology Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Microbiol. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0808
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJMR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 5210

Full Length Research Paper

Antibiogram of bacterial isolates and fungi associated with some creams and lotions sold in Zaria, Nigeria

Maryam Aminu*
  • Maryam Aminu*
  • Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
Osazuwa Christopher
  • Osazuwa Christopher
  • Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 19 September 2015
  •  Accepted: 10 November 2015
  •  Published: 21 February 2016


Skin moisturizing creams and lotions are external preparations that contain special additives that could serve as nutrients for microorganisms; it is possible that such products may get contaminated and serves as vehicles for pathogen transfer. Eight cosmetic products, consisting of 4 body creams and 4 lotions were randomly purchased from the local markets within Zaria and analyzed for their microbiological quality. Five out of the eight products examined were found to be contaminated with bacteria, which had counts ranging from 6.0 × 104 to 5.3 × 105 cfu/g. Three of the products showed evidence of fungal contamination, with counts ranging between 1.3 × 104 and 2.8 × 108 propagules/g. However, three of the products were free from both bacterial and fungal contaminants. Organisms isolated from the creams include Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus sp., Micrococcus sp., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus spp., Mucorand Penicillium spp. The organisms showed a high level of antibiotic resistance. However, erythromycin had the highest activity against the Gram-positive isolates while gentamycin had the highest activity against the Gram-negative isolates. There was significant correlation between microbial contamination and package orifice diameter, with highest bacterial and fungal count observed in products with wider orifices. Based on the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention (USP) standard of 103 cfu g−1 for cosmetic products, it was evident that five products had counts above this level; thereby representing serious health hazard. As a result, manufacturers should adhere to good manufacturing practices.

Key words: Moisturizing cream, body lotions, microbiological quality, Zaria, Nigeria.