Background: Bovine brucellosis is a major zoonosis caused by Brucella abortus. It is a disease with a high hygienic and economic impact that mainly affects breeders, handlers and consumers of dairy products and animal health professionals. It is therefore a real public health problem. The objective of this study was to assess seroprevalence and risk behaviour for zoonotic transmission of bovine brucellosis in Namentenga Province in Burkina Faso.
Methods: To do this, a 2-degree random sampling was conducted. Thus, a blood sample was taken from 600 randomly selected cattle. The individual serological status of these 600 cattle in 60 farms was determined by two tests: Tamponed Antigen Test and indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay for confirmation. The frequency of risk behaviours towards this zoonotic disease was determined through two epidemiological questionnaires that identified known risk factors for the transmission of brucellosis between animals and humans.
Results: Individual seroprevalence was estimated at 6.8% CI 95% [5.4-8.2]. At least one animal was infected in 30% (18/60) of herds. Positivity in the indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay test was significantly associated with age, breed, livestock conditions and vaccination status in cattle. The most frequently observed risk behaviours in humans in Namentenga Province are assisted calving and abortions, handling of the runt without a glove, consumption of raw milk or unpasteurized curd milk and fresh cheese.
Conclusions: In view of this result, Brucella abortus circulates in cattle farms in Namentenga Province. Since animal products such as milk and meat from these farms are consumed by the population, adequate measures must be taken to better protect and guide the means of prevention against this zoonosis among the inhabitants.
Keywords: Bovine brucellosis, Burkina Faso, Namentenga Province, Public health, Seroprevalence, Zoonosis.