African Journal of
Microbiology Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Microbiol. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0808
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJMR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 5233

Full Length Research Paper

Occurrence of virulent and antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus species in ready-to-eat Rhynchophorus phoenicis and Archachatina marginata vended along the Port Harcourt-Bayelsa route

Chioma Ngoka
  • Chioma Ngoka
  • Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, P. M. B 5323, Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
Onoriode Christian Eruteya
  • Onoriode Christian Eruteya
  • Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, P. M. B 5323, Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
Abiye Anthony Ibiene
  • Abiye Anthony Ibiene
  • Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, P. M. B 5323, Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 27 October 2020
  •  Accepted: 19 February 2021
  •  Published: 28 February 2021


Achi OK, Madubuike CN (2007). Prevalence and Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from Retail Ready-to-eat Foods in Nigeria. Research Journal of Microbiology 2(6):516-523.


Adegoke AA, Komolafe AO (2009). Multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus in clinical cases in Ile-Ife, South-west Nigeria. International Journal of Medical Sciences 1(3):068-072.


Adegoke AA, Adebayo-Tayo CB, Inyan UC, Aiyegoro AO, Komolafe OA (2010). Snail as meat source: Epidemiological and Nutritional Perspective, Journal of Microbiology and Antimicrobial 2(1):001-005.


Afolabi FT, Arowesebe AR, Adeyemi SM (2017). Antibiotic Susceptibility pattern and Plasmid Profiling of some isolates obtained from raw meats sold in Ibadan, Metropolis. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology Research 7(4):13-22.


Agbo BE, Udoekong NS, Ozumba RE (2016). Incidence of Staphylococcus aureus in Street vended food sold in Calabar Municipality, Nigeria. Journal of Biopesticides and Agriculture 3(1):31-40.


Agbonlahor DE, Imoyera PI, Igumboe EO, Akhabue EE, Ekundayo PA, Orhue DT, Obasuyi BO, Osuide OO (1994). The bacteriology of edible giant Africa land snail (Archachatina marginata) commonly found in Southern part of Nigeria. Journal of Medical Laboratory Science 4:26-32.


Ajayi SS, Tewe SO, Milligan JK (2009). Influence of seasonality on aestivation and behavior of the forest giant land snail, Archachatina marginata (Swaison). Bulletin of Animal Health Protection 28:328.


Akinnusi O (2002). Introduction to snails and snail farming. Triolas Publishing Company, Abeokuta P 70.


Amadi EN, Kiin-Kabari DB, Kpormon LB, Robinson VKK (2014). Microbial flora and Nutritional Composition of Adult Palm wine Beetle (Rhynchophorus phoenicis). International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Science 3(11):189-192.


Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) (2000). Official methods of Analysis of AOAC International, 17th Edition, II. Washington, DC, USA.


Arene FO, Ibanga ES, Asor JE (1999). Freshwater snail and Crab intermediate hosts of Paragonimus species in two rural communities in Cross River Basin, Nigeria. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Science 5:184-187.


Balaban N, Rasooly A (2000). Staphylococcal enterotoxins. International Journal of Food Microbiology 61(1):1-10.


Banjo AD, Lawal OA, Songonuga EA (2006). The nutritional value of fourteen species of edible insects in South-western Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology 5(3):298-301.


Becker K, Keller B, Von EC, Bruck M, Lubritz G, Etiene J, Peters G (2001). Enterotoxigenic potential Staphylococcus intermedius. Applied Environmental Microbiology 67(12):5551-5557.


Chang SK (2003). Protein analysis in Food. 3rd Edition. Kluwe Academic Plenum Publishers: New York, USA pp. 134-135.


Cheesbrough M (2010). District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries, Part 1. Cambridge University Press.


CLSI (2015). Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Tests; Approved Standards-12th Edition. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Wayne, USA.


Daniel EO, Onulide AA (2017). Isolation of Multidrug resistant Listeria monocytogenes from processed Rhynchophorus phoenicis Larvae. Bioresearch Communications 3(1):340-344.


Ebenebe CI, Okpoko VO (2015). Microbiological Quality of Raw and Roasted African Palm Weevil (Rhynchophorus phoenicis) consumed in South-Eastern Nigeria. Animal Research International 12(2):2159-2165.


Ekrakene T, Igeleke CL (2007). Microbial isolates from the Roasted Larva of the Palm Weevil Rhynchophorus phoenicis [F] from Edo and Delta States of Nigeria. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 1:763-768.


Eruteya OC, Odunfa SA, Lahor J (2014). Listeria spp. in Raw Cow and Goat Meat in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. British Biotechnology Journal 4(2):204-214.


Fagbuaro O, Oso JA, Edward JB, Ogunleye RF (2006). Nutritional status of four species of giant land snails in Nigeria. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B 7:686-689.


Fogoh JM, Aurele AA, Philippe L, Patrice L (2015). Exploitation, Trade and Farming of Palm weevil grubs in Cameroon. Working paper 178, Bogor, Indonesia; CIFOR.


Gundocan N, Citak S, Turan E (2006). Slime production, DNase activity and antibiotic resistance to Staphylococcus aureus isolated from raw milk, pasteurized milk and ice cream samples. Food Control 17(5):389-392.


Guven K, Mutlu MB, Gulbandilar A, Cakir P (2010). Occurrence and characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from meat and dairy product consumed in Turkey. Journal of Food Safety 30(1):196-212.


Harakeh S, Yassine H, Gharios M, Barbour E, Hajjar S, El-Fadel M, Toufeili I, Tannous R (2005). Isolation, molecular characterization and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella and Escherichia coli isolates from meat-based fast food in Lebanon. Science of the Total Environment 341(1-3):33-44.


Harrigan WF, McCance ME (1990). Laboratory Methods in Food and Dairy Microbiology (8th Edition). Academic Press Inc.: London pp. 7-23; 286-303.


Health Protection Agency (2009). Guidelines for Assessing the Microbiological Safety of Ready-to-eat Foods. London: Health Protection Agency. 


Herbert DG, Kilburn RN (2004). Field guide to the land snails and slugs of eastern South Africa. Natal Museum, Pietermaritzburg.


James CS (1995). Analytical Chemistry of Foods. Chapman and Hall: New York, USA pp. 41-75.


Jay JM (1992). Staphylococcal gastroeneteritis. In: Modern Food Microbiology (Nostrand, V. editions). 4th Edition. New York, NY, USA pp. 455-478.


Kamarehei F, Ghaemi EA, Dadgar T (2013). Prevalence of enterotoxin a and b genes in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from clinical samples and healthy carriers in Gorgan City, North of Iran. Indian Journal of Pathological Microbiology 56(3):265-268.


Kumar HS, Parvathi A, Karunasagar I (2005). Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli in Tropical sea food. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 21:619-623.


Kumar JD, Negi YK, Gaur A, Khanna D (2009). Detection of virulence genes in Staphylococcal aureus isolated from paper currency. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 13(6):450-455.


Lancette GA, Bennett RW (2001). Staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcal enterotoxins. In: Downes FP, Ito K (edition). Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods. 4th Edition. Washington, American Public Health Association.


Le Loir Y, Baron F, Gautier M (2003). Staphylococcus aureus and food poisoning. Genetics and Molecular Research 2(1):7-28.


Leke A, Goudjil S, Mullie C, Grognet S, Biendo M (2017). PCR detection of Staphylococcal enterotoxins genes and exfoliative toxin genes in methicillin resistant and Methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus strains from raw human breast milk. Clinical Nutrition Experimental 14:26-35.


Makelele LK, Kazadi ZA, Oleko RW, Mpalang NK, Ngbolua NK, Gedeon BN (2015). Microbiological quality of food sold by street vendors in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of Congo. African Journal of Food Science 9(5):285-290.


Mordi R, Momoh M (2009). Incidence of Proteus species in wound infections and their sensitivity pattern in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital. African Journal of Biotechnology 8(5):725-730.


Nwuzo AA, Iroha IR, Moses IB, Ugbo EN, Agumah NB, Orji J, Okonkwo EC, Oke B, Ogene L (2016). Isolation and Characterization of Bacterial Species associated with Edible Snails (Achatina achatina) Sold in Major Markets within Abakaliki Metropolis. Biolife 4(3):494-497.


Nyoagbe LM, Appiah V, Nketsia TJ, Larbi D, Adeji I (2016). Evaluation of African giant snails (Achatina and Archachatina) obtained from markets (wild) and breeding farms. African Journal of Food Science 10(7):94-104.


Okaraonye CC, Ikewuchi JC (2008). Rhynchophorus phoenicis (F) Larva Meal: Nutritional value and health implications. Journal of Biological Sciences 8(7):1221-1225.


Okonko IO, Ogunjobi AA, Fajobi EA, Onga BA, Babalola ET, Adedeji AO (2008). Comparative studies and different assessment of ready-to-eat frozen sea foods processed in Ijita, Olapa Lagos State, Nigeria. Journal of African Biotechnology 7(16):2898-2901.


Opara MN, Sanyigha FT, Ogbuewu IP, Okoli IC (2012). Studies on the production trend and quality characteristics of palm grubs in the Tropical rainforest zone of Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Technology 8(3):851-860.


Oranusi US, Braide W (2012) A Study of Microbial Safety of Ready-To-Eat Foods vended on Highways: Onitsha-Owerri, South-Eastern Nigeria. International Research Journal of Microbiology 3(2):66-71.


Pinchuk IV, Beswick EJ, Reyes VE (2010). Staphylococcal enterotoxins. Toxins 2(8):2177-2197.


Tambe TJ, Riolo P, Okolle NJ, Isidoro N, Fanciulli PP, Dallai R (2013). Sexual size differences and color polymorphism of Rhynchophorus phoenicis in the Southwest region of Cameroon. Bulletin of Insectology 66(1):153-159.


Thomas D, Chou S, Dauwalder O, Lina G (2007). Diversity of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins. Chemical Immunology and Allergy 93((1):24-41.


Umofia I (2012). Antibiotic Susceptibility studies of some bacterial isolates from packaged milk of marketed in Zaria, Nigeria. M.Sc Thesis. Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.


Uraih N, Izuagbe Y (1990). Public Health, Food and Industrial Microbiology. 1st Edition. Uniben Press, Nigeria 54 p.


USDA (2006). National Nutrient Standard Reference, Release 19. Available from

View. (Accessed February 5, 2018).


Vendruscolo JW, Waldrich TL, Saikawa GIA, Pelayo JS, Kbayashi RKT, Nakazato G, Rocha SPD (2017). Novel Multiplex PCR for detection of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from stool and water samples. Genetics and Molecular Research 16(3):gmr16039760.


Wachukwu CK, Thomas CN, Kigigha LT (2002). Microorganisms associated with Palm weevil larvae (Ryhnchophorus phoenicis). Journal of Dairying Food and Home Science 21(1):44-47.


Waters AE, Contente-Cuomo T, Buchhagen J, Liu CM, Watson L, Pearce K, Foster JT, Bowers J, Driebe EM, Engelthaler DM, Keim PS, Price LB (2011). Multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in US meat and poultry. Clinical Infectious Diseases 52(15):1227-1230.


Wieneke AA, Roberts D, Gilbert RJ (1993). Staphylococcal food poisoning in the United Kingdom, 1969-90. Epidemiological Infections 110(3):519-531.


Wimalasekara G (2016). Microbiological quality of ready-to-eat meat-based foods available in temporary food outlets in Gall Face Green, Colombo, Sri Lanka. International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Plantation 4:38-44.


Womeni HM, Tiencheu B, Linder M, Nabayo EMC, Tenyang N, Mbiapo FT, Villeneuve P, Fanni J, Parmentier M (2012). Nutritional value and effect of cooking, drying and storage process on some functional properties of Rhynchophorus phoenicis. International Journal of Life Science and Pharma Research 2(3):203-219.