Mastoiditis in childhood: Review of the literature
Mastoiditis is an infection of mastoid process, the portion of the temporal bone of the skull which is behind the ear and contains open air-containing spaces. With possible extra cranial and intracranial complications, acute mastoiditis is the leading complication of acute otitis media (AOM). The goal of this review was to assess the clinical features, pathogens, complications and management of acute and...
Recent insights into Bovine Papillomavirus
Bovine papillomaviruses (BPV) are double-stranded DNA viruses that infect the cutaneous and mucosal epithelia inducing hyperplasic lesions in cattle. BPV is the etiologic agent of the papillomatosis and neoplasia of the upper gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder. The benign and malignant tumors caused by BPV are emergent diseases important for beef and dairy cattle in the world. Although BPV...
Phytoplasmas associated with Almond witchesâ€™ broom disease: An overview
Almond is affected by several phytoplasma diseases but almond witches' broom (AlmWB) is the most destructive one. The disease spread rapidly, killed about a hundred thousands trees in recent years. Association of phytoplasma with AlmWB disease thatbelonged to the pigeon pea witches’-broom (PPWB) group has been established and the name ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma...
Molecular progresses of marine Planctomycetes: A review
The Planctomycetes are an important group of marine bacteria, which may play critical roles in biogenic elements cycling in the ocean. Although, ecological and physiological studies on Planctomycetes are limited for their few isolates, applications of molecular approaches to environmental samples have provided great information for the understanding of their functions. Here, we...