African Journal of
Microbiology Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Microbiol. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0808
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJMR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 5233

Table of Content: 9 June, 2012; 6(21)

June 2012

Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in Serratia marcescens

Serratia marcescens, one of the Enterobacteriaceae, was considered originally to be non-pathogenic. But in recent decades, nosocomial infections caused by this organism are often hard to treat because of both the intrinsic resistance of this species and its abilities to acquire further resistance to multiple groups of antimicrobial agents, including β-lactams, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones. S....

Author(s): Haifei Yang, Jun Cheng, Lifen Hu, Yulin Zhu and Jiabin Li,

June 2012

Seroprevalence of avian leukosis virus antigen using ELISA technique in commercial exotic-layer chickens in Zaria and its environs

This study examined the prevalence of avian leukosis virus (ALV) in commercial exotic-layer chickens in Zaria, Nigeria, and its environs. A total of 240 sera from eight commercial exotic-layer farms were tested for ALV p27 antigen using the antigen capture - enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ac-ELISA), out of which 44 (18.33%) sera were positive. Of the eight commercial exotic-layer farms sampled, six were seropositive...

Author(s): N. A. Sani, S. B. Oladele, M. A. Raji and N. D. G. Ibrahim

June 2012

Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in prostatitis subjects attending University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital

This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in Prostatitis subjects attending urology clinic at University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH). Fifty eight (58) prostatitis subjects attending urology clinic at University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital and 54 apparently normal subjects working at University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH) were used for this...

Author(s): Adegoke, A. O., Bamigbowu, O. E., Ayodele, M. B. O. and Blankson, C. D.

June 2012

Degradation of organic wastes and recycling of nutrients enhanced by microbes in subterranean habitat

Degradation of organic wastes and recycling of nutrients enhanced by various microbes of both bacterial and fungal species available at the entrance, twilight and dark zones of four different caves such as Pannian, Samanar, Ushman and KKB caves at Madurai was investigated. The roles of chemoheterotrophic and chemoautotrophic bacteria were found to be essential in cave ecosystem. The most important chemoheterotrophs were...

Author(s): A. John KoilRaj , P. Prabhavathi, R. Rajendran, T. Kuberan, R. Shiyamala Gowri and C. Perunkottur Selvi  

June 2012

Cellulose decomposing fungi and cellulase activity as affected by amistar and moncut fungicides

Spray application of the two fungicides; Amistar (25% Azoxystrobin) and Moncut (25% Flutolanil) on faba bean plants in the field exhibited an inhibitive effect on the total and individual counts of cellulose decomposing fungi associated with roots and shoots of plants. The inhibitive effect of these fungicides depended mainly on the fungicide concentration. The inhibitive effect was increased with the increase in...

Author(s): A. Saleem, A. H. M. El-Said, A. M. Moharram and A. Hamed

June 2012

Serological and molecular identification of subclinical chicken anaemia virus infection in broiler chickens in Iran

Chicken anaemia virus (CAV) can occur in immunosuppressive syndrome in broiler chickens. CAV infection in presence of maternal antibody appears sub-clinically. In this study subclinical infection of CAV was studied in broiler chickens in four provinces of Iran, by ELISA and PCR. For this, total of 375 serum samples and 375 thymus samples were collected from 25 broiler chicken flocks. Results showed all flocks to be...

Author(s): Majid Gholami-Ahangaran and Noosha Zia-Jahromi

June 2012

Inhibitory effect of aqueous garlic (Allium sativum) extract against clinical isolates of Salmonella typhi

Typhoid Fever is a systemic disease which is more prevalent in under-developed countries. Drug resistance has been developed against antibiotics used for the treatment of typhoid. It is very important to set the basis of alternative medicines for management of typhoid. Garlic is one of the natural plants being used as spicy food and folk medicine. Various beneficial therapeutic effects of garlic have been documented...

Author(s): Abdul Hannan, Kanwal Rauf, Muhammad Ikram Ullah, Tahir Naeem, Mehwish Raja, Muhammad Usman Qamar, Romeeza Tahir and Mehwish Saba

June 2012

Evaluation of Alternaria alternata causing leaf spot of barnyardgrass grown in rice fields

Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa spp.) is considered one of the world worst weeds. Fungal pathogens can be exploited as biological agents for the management of agricultural weeds. In this research, Alternaria alternata was isolated from Echinochloa spp. and studied as a biocontrol agent against this weed in paddy fields. Pathogenicity test of isolates was done in desiccators, and revealed...

Author(s): Mohammad Reza Safari Motlagh

June 2012

Management of root rot disease of groundnut (Arachis hypogeae L.) by plant extracts

A field experiment was conducted during 2009 to 2010 crop season in district Chakwal to evaluate the efficiency of aqueous extracts of five plant species, namely Allium cepa L. (onion), Allium sativum L. (garlic), Boerhaavia diffusa auct. Plur., Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T. Aiton., Cannabis sativa L., and two fungicide antracol and ridomil and both fungicides in...

Author(s): Shakil Ahmed, Noor Zaman and Salik Nawaz Khan

June 2012

Investigation on intera-specific biodiversity of 20 silkworm germplasm based on glucose, urea, uric acid, lactat D-hydrogenase, total protein and alpha amylase

The aim of this experiment is to investigate the profile of biochemical markers in 20 Iranian silkworm cocoon germplasm. On the fifth day (fifth instar), heamolymph was sampled using a standard method. The sampled heamolymph was transferred to the laboratory. The heamolymph was obtained by cutting the abdominal proleg of the silkworms and collecting the heamolymph in a 1.5 ml tube containing a few granules of phenylthio...

Author(s): A. R. Seidavi, A. R. Bizhannia, M. Mavvajpour, K. H. Tayyeb Naimi, Y. Kheirkhah, M. Chamani and M. Salehi Nezhad

June 2012

Numerical analysis of whole-cell and cell wall proteins’ profiles of human oral cavity Candida isolates

Protein electrophoresis has been of great value for the delineation of fungi taxonomy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protein polymorphism degree among thirteen oralCandida strains belonging to six species and isolated from adult patients submitted to the Dental Hospital of Monastir (Tunisia) and suffering from denture stomatitis using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)...

Author(s): Emira Noumi, Mejdi Snoussi, Antonio Marcilla Diaz, Amina Bakhrouf and Eulogio Valentin

June 2012

Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) infected with multiple strains of Aeromonas hydrophila

Ctenopharyngodon idellus is an important commercial fish species in China and many other countries to meet human food habits. However, there is no definitive data to indicate the multi-infection of pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila strains in cultured C. idellus. In this study, four strong virulent strains with five virulence genes were simultaneously isolated from the...

Author(s): Weidong Zheng, Haipeng Cao and Xianle Yang

June 2012

Microbiological and molecular detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in nasogastric tube fed geriatric patients

Nasogastric tube feeding is the most common and oldest form of interventional feeding. The oropharynx of nasogastric tube fed elderly patients provides an ecosystem that promotes the colonization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The study was conducted to determine the incidence of P. aeruginosa isolation from the oropharynx of nasogastric tube fed elderly patients and explore its antibiotic sensitivity. The...

Author(s): Manal Darwish, Magda Abd-Elwadoud and Manal Mahmoud

June 2012

Use of starch containing tubers for the formulation of culture media for fungal cultivation

This experiment was performed to test the suitability of other starch containing tubers (sweet potato varieties [purple and whitish], yam and cocoyam varieties [edible and non-edible]) as substitutes for Irish potato in potato dextrose agar (PDA) in varying concentrations (100, 200, 300, and 400 g/L) and alternating between dextrose and glucose in concentration range of 10, 20, and 30 g/L. Potato dextrose agar (PDA)...

Author(s): Amadi O. C. and Moneke A. N.

June 2012

Epithelium of human fresh amniotic membrane has antimicrobial effects in vitro

This study was carried out to investigate the antimicrobial effects of human fresh amniotic membrane and human amniotic homogenate supernatant (HAHS) in vitro. Fresh human amniotic membranes were harvested and used to make a cellular amniotic membranes (fresh amniotic membranes without the epithelium) and HAHS. Then, the antimicrobial effects of both the fresh human amniotic membrane with the epithelium and fresh...

Author(s): Xin Wang, Jing Xie, Lian Tan, Jian Huo and Hanping Xie

June 2012

Biorecycling of shrimp shell by Trichoderma viride for production of antifungal chitinase

Eight chitinolytic fungal species belonging to 5 genera (400 colonies /g dry soil) were isolated, from agricultural soil sample located in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, Saudi Arabia, on agar plates containing crude shrimp shell chitin. Trichoderma viride was the most dominant species (35% of the total count) followed by genus Fusarium (30% of the total count) which comprised...

Author(s): Eman Fathi Sharaf, Abd El-Aziz Qablan El-Sarrany and Mai El-Deeb

June 2012

Characterization of baculovirus isolates obtained from soil by restriction fragment patterns

Four baculovirus isolates recovered from soil in corn plots infested with fall armyworm (FAW) larvae were characterized using three different restriction enzymes. Each isolate wasamplified in larvae in aseptic conditions, to increase the number of occlusion bodies (OBs). Baculovirus isolates were...

Author(s): Claudio Rios-Velasco, David I. Berlanga-Reyes, Gabriel Gallegos-Morales and Ma. Cristina Del Rincón-Castro

June 2012

Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of H9N2 avian influenza viruses isolated in Iran in 1999 and 2009

Influenza virus type A is raised as a unique genomic structure due to genetic instability, especially in products of Neuraminidase and Haemagglutinin genes. These two surface proteins play a significant role to let the viruses bind with and release from host cells and immune system. In this study, we characterized Haemagglutinin and Neuraminidase genes of 6 Iranian isolates which have been isolated from commercial...

Author(s): A. Bozorgi, H. Keyvanfar, H. Shushtari, M. Bahmaninejad and F. Eshratabadi

June 2012

Diversity of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, prevalent in rhizosphere of different crops grown in the university farm

Thirty-four (34) roots and rhizospheric soil samples of seven kharif and eight rabi season crops were collected from different areas of the university farm. The percent Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal infection in different crops ranged from 0 to 100%. Maximum AM fungal colonization (100%) was found in cowpea, chickpea and pea and minimum in urdbean, soybean, barley and even in chickpea...

Author(s): Mangla Bansal, K. Kukreja and S. S. Dudeja

June 2012

Phosphate solubilization of Paenibacillus polymyxa and Paenibacillus macerans from mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal cucumber plants

The phosphate-solubilizing ability of sixteen Paenibacillus strains, which previously were isolated from rhizosphere, hyphosphere or bulk soil, respectively, from mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal cucumber plants, were examined. Result from this study showed that seven strains could solubilize both Ca3(PO4)2 and CaHPO4, while inositol hexaphosphate could be solubilized by two strains in National Botanical...

Author(s): Yanli Wang, Yu Shi, Bin Li, Changlin Shan, Muhammad Ibrahim, Amara Jabeen, Guanlin Xie and Guochang Sun

June 2012

Antimicrobial activity of lavender oil treated with nicotinamide

Lavendula officinalis plants were grown in perlite substrate culture, treated with three nicotinamide concentrations (0, 75 and 100 mg/L), also foliar spray with two different irrigation scheduling (10, 15 times/day) were used. Essential oil (extracted from two cuts) composition was identified using gas chromatography (GC). Essential oil samples were tested for their antimicrobial activity against five Gram...

Author(s): Mohammed A. T. Abdel-Reheem, Zaynab A. Moussa, Mona M. Oraby, Fatma S. Aboud and Dalia A. M. Abdou

June 2012

Phenanthrene biodegradation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis isolated from Persian gulf sediments

In this study, two bacterial strains isolated from contaminated sediments were selected due to their capacity of growth in the presence of phenanthrene as sole carbon and energy source. The isolates were identified by biochemical tests and PCR of the 16S rRNA gene. Biological capacity of isolated strains to phenanthrene decomposition was measured by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The strains belonged...

Author(s): Zohreh Roostan, Alireza Safahieh, Fatemeh Mojodi, Hossein Zolgharnein, Kamal Ghanemi and Hajar Abiar

June 2012

Detection of canine parvovirus 2: A comparison of conventional polymerase chain reaction and haemagglutination test

Several laboratory techniques have been adopted for detection of canine parvovirus (CPV) but the big question has been on their accuracy, speed, cost and availability. This study was meant to compare conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and haemagglutination (HA) test in the detection of CPV-2. PCR targeted the VP2 gene while HA targeted the haemagglutinin all in the virus. 113 samples comprising 80 rectal swabs...

Author(s): Chollom S. C., Ularamu H. G., Woma T. Y., Owolodun O. O., Luka P. D., Anvou A. R., Nwankiti O. O. and Egah D. Z.

June 2012

Neuroprotective action of Astragalus mongholicus aqueous extract in experimental rats suffering from spinal cord injury

Astragalus mongholicus aqueous extract (AMAE) is widely used for its medicinal properties. In the present study, we evaluated the role of AMAE on spinal cord lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant status, apoptosis index and inducible nitric oxide synthases (iNOS) positive expression rate in rats. Male albino rats of Wistar strain were divided into four groups: Group I, normal control rats; Group II, model rats...

Author(s): Yan Zhi-Qin, Bao Shao-Zhi, Zhang Shun-Kai and Yu Jun-Ru

June 2012

Nested-PCR as a tool for the detection and differentiation of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in patients with sepsis-septic shock

Associating high morbid-mortality with sepsis makes it necessary to have a rapid detection and identification of the causal microorganism. The objective of this study is on the standardization and use of the nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the differentiation of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in patients with sepsis-septic shock. PCR, using whole blood from clinically healthy individuals with...

Author(s): Patricia Lozano Zarain, Genaro Lopéz-Téllez, Rosa del Carmen Rocha-Gracia, Cuauhtémoc Romero-López, Ygnacio Martínez-Laguna, Antonio Rivera and Eduardo Brambila

June 2012

Isolation and characterization of a benzoic acid degrading Pseudomonas putida from a pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plant

A Gram-negative benzoic acid degrading bacterial strain Bz was isolated from the wastewater treatment plant of Shandong Xinhua Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd in Zibo city, China. It could utilize benzoic acid as the sole carbon and energy source for growth. Under the optimum temperature of 30°C and pH value of 7.5, the benzoic acid degradation rate reached 94% in the basal medium in 96 h. Besides, it could utilize...

Author(s): Chunyang Zhang, Chao Li, Linlin Zhang and Xidong Shao

June 2012

Quantification of antibodies against poultry haemagglutinating viruses by haemagglutination inhibition test in Lahore

A study was conducted for quantification of antibodies to haemagglutinating viruses such as AIV (H9N2 and H7N3), NDV and IBV in vaccinated poultry flocks. A total of 198 serum samples from different commercial broiler and layer farms in Lahore, Pakistan, were checked for their serological statuses. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test was performed to determine the titer of serum antibodies against the above mentioned...

Author(s): Shahzad Munir, Mubashir Hussain, Umar Farooq, ZabidUllah, Qaiser Jamal, Mehwesh Afreen, Kalsoom Bano, Jafar Khan, Sultan Ayaz, Kil Yong Kim and Muhammad Anees

June 2012

Relation of microbial biomass to counting units for Pseudomonas aeruginosa

In this study, we investigated the relationship between cell counting units and biomass forPseudomonas aeruginosa since microbial parameters often need to be defined as mass rather than colony forming unit (CFU) or optical density (OD) which is easily measurable using plate counting method or spectrophotometer especially for any attempt in modeling of contaminant transport and biodegradation in aquifer systems....

Author(s): Dong-ju Kim, Seung-gun Chung, Sang-hyup Lee and Jae-woo Choi