African Journal of
Pharmacy and Pharmacology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0816
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJPP
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 2225

Full Length Research Paper

Medication administration omission errors: Frequency and their causes during medication administration process at Ndola Teaching Hospital in Zambia

Martin Kampamba
  • Martin Kampamba
  • Department of Pharmacy, School of Health Sciences, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia.
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Fatima Demba
  • Fatima Demba
  • Department of Pharmacy, School of Health Sciences, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia.
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Steward Mudenda
  • Steward Mudenda
  • Department of Pharmacy, School of Health Sciences, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia.
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Webrod Mufwambi
  • Webrod Mufwambi
  • Department of Pharmacy, School of Health Sciences, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia.
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Ellah Zingani
  • Ellah Zingani
  • Department of Pharmacy, School of Health Sciences, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia.
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Freeman W Chabala
  • Freeman W Chabala
  • Institute of Basic and Biomedical Sciences, Levy Mwanawasa Medical University, Lusaka Zambia.
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Angela Gono Bwalya
  • Angela Gono Bwalya
  • Department of Pharmacy, School of Health Sciences, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia.
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Patricia Mbambara
  • Patricia Mbambara
  • Department of Health Sciences, Pharmacy Section, Evelyn Hone College, Lusaka, Zambia.
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Kennedy Saini
  • Kennedy Saini
  • Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Lusaka Apex Medical University, Lusaka, Zambia
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Margaret Phiri
  • Margaret Phiri
  • School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Mulungushi University, Kabwe, Zambia.
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Ann Mbulo Silwimba
  • Ann Mbulo Silwimba
  • Department of Health Sciences, Pharmacy Section, Evelyn Hone College, Lusaka, Zambia.
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Tyson Lungwani Muungo
  • Tyson Lungwani Muungo
  • Department of Pharmacy, School of Health Sciences, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia.
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Ronald Kampamba Mutati
  • Ronald Kampamba Mutati
  • Department of Pharmacy, School of Health Sciences, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia.
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Christabel Nang’andu Hikaambo
  • Christabel Nang’andu Hikaambo
  • Department of Pharmacy, School of Health Sciences, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia.
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  •  Received: 08 August 2021
  •  Accepted: 26 August 2021
  •  Published: 30 September 2021

Abstract

Medication administration omission errors (MAOE) are very common and often affect patient outcomes and length of stay in the hospitals. This study was a cross-sectional study in which the frequency and causes of MAOE over four weeks at Ndola University Teaching Hospital (NUTH) was assessed. It involved reviewing patients’ drug charts and observation of nurses during the administration of medications to inpatients to detect the MAOE. A total of 259 drug charts were reviewed using a checklist and administered semi-structured questionnaires to 50 nurses who were involved in medication administration to solicit the cause of MAOE. To assess factors associated with MAOE, multivariate logistic regression was used. In this study, 259 drug charts were reviewed of which 220 (84.9%) had one or more MAOE. Of the 1100 doses prescribed to 259 inpatients, 317 doses were omitted resulting in an overall MAOE frequency of 28.8%. In multivariate regression analysis, increased number of medications that the patient used (AOR: 2.18, CI: 1.62-2.94; p=0.0001), being male (AOR: 2.42, Cl: 1.05-5.53: p=0.036) and surgical wards (AOR: 8.56, CI: 3.04 -24.1; p=0.0001) were significant predictors of MAOE. The most common causes of MAOE were the unavailability of medication on the ward followed by work overload. The most omitted class of medication was anti-infective. Medication omission errors are common and affect adult inpatients at Ndola Teaching. There is a need to highlight the magnitude of this problem to promote awareness so that specific interventions are put in place to address the identified causes. 

Key words: Medication omission, administration errors, frequency, medication administration.