To evaluate the nephroprotective mechanism of Xylopia aethiopica stem-bark ethanol extract (XASEE) on glyphosate-induced toxicity in Wistar rats. Xylopia aethiopica stem bark was macerated and soaked in 50% ethanol, extracted and concentrated using a rotary evaporator to obtain XASEE. The phytochemical constituents of the extract were examined qualitatively and quantitatively.In stage1, a total of 12 animals were used to determine the lethal acute dose of XASEE while in stage 2, a total of 30 animals were obtained for the study, grouped into six with five animals each and treated as follows; control, glyphosate (150 mg/kg), glyphosate (150 mg/kg) + XASEE (126.49 mg/kg), glyphosate (126.49 mg/kg) + vitamin C (250 mg/kg), XASEE (126.49 mg/kg), and vitamin C (250 mg/kg). Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, phenolics, flavonoids, glycosides, steroids and alkaloids. Results obtained showed phenolics (492.84 ± 0.01), followed by steroids (449.02±0.02) being the highest with glycosides (7.01±0.02) being the least among all. Exposure of rats to glyphosate at a dose of 150 mg/kg b.wt orally for 7 days significantly (P < 0.05) increases the concentrations of uric acid, urea and creatinine in the serum and the level of MDA, NO, CRP, TNF-? and IL-6 in kidney homogenates. Also, glyphosate significantly (P < 0.05) mediated a decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD, GPX and CAT but there was no significant alteration in the concentration of serum electrolytes K+, Na+ Cl+ and HCO3- ions. The co-administration of XASEE after two hours of administration of glyphosate ameliorates the incidence of nephrotoxicity, lipid peroxidation and inflammation. The study suggests that Xylopia aethiopica is a potent protective agent against glyphosate-induced nephrotoxicity and inflammation.
Keywords: Nephrotoxicity, glyphosate, Xylopia aethiopica, nephroprotective, organophosphorus pesticide