This study describes the traditional relationship between farmers and Fulani herdsmen in the incessant resource conflict witnessed in Kogi State, Nigeria and how it affects livelihood security of those involved and resource sustainability for the communities. These conflicts are most responsible for the unsustainable utilization of land and water resources as the trampling by the hooves of herds of cattle compacts the soil of farm land, destroy farm crops by the herdsmen, places restraint on effective utilization of arable farmland among other destruction of available resources. It is understood that these conflicts have their roots in the land tenure system, settlers are indigenes contest over land and misplaced development strategies of the government. The study relied extensively on a research conducted in the Benue valley region in 2006 which identified the major causes of conflict in the area of study. The study concluded that there is the need for state resolution of the critical issues that are at the roots of the conflict i.e. land tenure system and provide a clear policy on grazing land. These are constitutional matters that would involve all stakeholders if a peaceful and lasting solution is to be evolved.
Key words: Conflict, farmers, herdsmen, land, resource, sustainability, water.
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