Educational Research and Reviews

  • Abbreviation: Educ. Res. Rev.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1990-3839
  • DOI: 10.5897/ERR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 2008

Full Length Research Paper

The awareness of the students about the concepts in the production distribution and consumption learning field in the social studies course curriculum

Yasar CELIK
  • Yasar CELIK
  • Ondokuz Mayis University, Education Faculty, Department of Basic Education, Classroom Education, Samsun, Turkey.
  • Google Scholar


  •  Received: 16 November 2021
  •  Accepted: 23 December 2021
  •  Published: 31 January 2022

 ABSTRACT

In our world where unlimited human needs are tried to be met with limited resources, the effort to use resources in the most effective way is the reason for the existence of economics. The aim of this research is to examine the awareness of the concepts and topics that are planned to be taught to the 4th grade students’ social studies curriculum and to make some suggestions. The study group of the research consists of 99 students studying in two primary schools in the Atakum district center of Samsun province in the 2020-2021 academic year. In the research, one of the purposeful sampling methods was used as a measurement tool. The data were analyzed by descriptive analysis. As a result of the research, it has been determined that the majority of the students have sufficient awareness of the concepts of need, benefit, goods, production, consumption, savings and waste, but their awareness of the concepts of budget, cost, economic activity, balancing the budget is not sufficient. It has been revealed that the students are aware of the production activities in their regions, but they are little aware of the production stages, the contribution of production to the economy, the growing conditions of the products and the difficulties in growing the products, and the income from the products. In addition, it was understood that the majority of the students had a good level of awareness about conscious consumer, thrift, expiry date, receipt and invoice, but low awareness of TSE, CE and ISO as well as what to do after shopping. On the other hand, it was determined that the majority of the students had a low level of awareness about the income-expenditure status of the family, but had a good level of awareness about the contribution to the family economy. In addition, the majority of the students stated that they contributed to the country's economy by not wasting and not acting extravagantly.

 

Key words: Awareness, family, family economy, country, student.


 INTRODUCTION

Concepts such as economy and finance have become an important part of people's lives for many years and are increasingly gaining importance. The responsibilities of individuals in economic matters are increasing day by day. In order for children and young people to be able to cope with this responsibility, good financial education should be provided in schools (Amagir et al., 2018). Societies make very important efforts to raise awareness about the economy. In this context, various activities are carried out by means of mass media. In particular, public service announcements are prepared to reach individuals of all ages. More importantly, purpose-oriented education and training activities are included at all levels of formal education institutions. Through non-formal education, individuals’ awareness is raised on economic issues from an early age, since the economics education given from early ages prepares individuals to be qualified voters as well as enabling them to be better educated in production and consumption issues (Melendez et al., 2000).

 

Starting economics education at a young age and supporting this education with current events and examples from their own lives as much as possible will be an important support for individuals to make the right decisions in the future (Akhan, 2013). Studies have revealed that the applied education activities related to economy given to preschool and primary school children have positive and lasting effects in terms of their understanding of economic facts and events (Akhan, 2010; Bayhan et al., 2007; CFYI, 2012; Çar?kç?, 2019; Davison and Kilgore, 1971; Kourilsky, 1977; OECD, 2017; Ünlüer, 2021; Webley, 2005).

 

Although all the lessons taught in primary schools should serve a purpose in a way, the social studies lesson in the 4th grade has a special importance in terms of realizing the purpose. In this context, the special purpose of "understanding the basic concepts of economy and understanding the place of national economy in development and international economic relations" was included in the social studies curriculum. In order to realize this aim, a learning area named "Production, Distribution and Consumption" has been included in the program. Within the scope of the learning area, economic concepts and information are given by expanding them as the grade levels increase. With this learning area, students are expected to develop entrepreneurship and conscious consumerism skills, to believe in the need to protect resources because they are limited, to make an effort to improve their own conditions by comparing their economic situation with that of their friends, and to understand the characteristics of the professions they are interested in by recognizing various professions (Ministry of National Education (MEB), 2018).

 

At the core of the learning area is the development of students' entrepreneurship and conscious consumerism skills. Entrepreneurship is the individual recognizing the opportunities around him and making plans and projects by taking risks when necessary in order to make the most of these opportunities and making an effort to put them into practice (Gömleksiz and Kan, 2009). In other words, it is an individual's effort to make his dreams come true (Ürper, 2015). Therefore, economy and entrepreneurship are intertwined concepts. In addition, financial literacy skills are tried to be gained within the scope of social studies course. In the social studies curriculum, it was asked to associate the financial literacy skill with the savings value. This skill is expressed in the program as “raising individuals who use their resources and budget effectively, contribute to the progress of themselves and their country by making wise investments, and save their resources by avoiding waste” (MEB, 2018).

 

Financial literacy is the ability to understand the basic concepts, risks and skills related to the subject and to use them in financial decisions when necessary, in order to increase the level of financial well-being of individuals and society (OECD, 2012). This is because, in order to create a society that produces information, technology and financial resources, financial literacy skills must be gained at an early age to all members of the society. Individuals who acquire financial literacy skills at an early age are more conscious and sensitive about the economy, budget and investing (OECD, 2014). From a social point of view, it is expected that financially literate individuals will tend to save and these savings will contribute to economic development. Individuals contribute to the country's economy by managing their own budget correctly, prepare a budget, compare prices in shopping, and save for emergencies and unexpected situations (Atkinson and Messy, 2013). In parallel with their level of financial education, their potential for effective citizenship also increases In this context, the following achievements are included in the social studies curriculum at the 4th grade level:

 

1. Makes conscious choices between the two by distinguishing between wants and needs.

2. Recognizes the main economic activities of his family and close environment.

3. Exhibits conscious consumer behavior as a responsible individual.

4. Creates a sample budget of its own.

5. It uses the resources around it without wasting it.

 

These achievements are discussed in the textbook under the topics of our wishes, needs, economic activities in my family and environment, let's be conscious consumers and yes to consumption, no to waste. Again in the course book, the concepts of desire, need, budget, benefit, cost, goods, services, costs, economic activity, production, consumption, profession, savings, waste, self-control in shopping, balancing the budget and frugality are included. Pre-shopping and post-shopping transactions, expiry date, meanings of the signs (TSE, CE, ISO) on the products, receipts, invoices, advertising concepts, family income and expenses, economic contribution to the family, being a conscious consumer, economic resources of the region. , the products produced in the region, the growing conditions of the products, the professions involved in the production, the marketing of the products, their delivery to the consumers, the income level of the products, the difficulties encountered in the production of the products, the effect of the climate on the production and how it can contribute to the country's economy (Tüysüz, 2019). If adequate financial education is not provided in schools, this gap is closed by parents and other adults, but 32% of parents can support their children in this regard.

 

According to a study conducted in Turkey on the subject, the learning outcome related to financial literacy is mostly included in the primary school curriculum, followed by the secondary school and high school curriculum. At primary school level, this subject is frequently included in social studies and life studies courses. In addition, studies supporting this education are included in mathematics and science programs. In recent years, the increase in online shopping, the use of credit cards, and the emergence of complex financial products have increased the importance of the subject. The Ministry of National Education, Ministry of Development, financial institutions and non-governmental organizations provided training to teachers on financial literacy with the project they developed (MEB, 2016).

 

It is noteworthy that other countries and international organizations also took similar initiatives. Among these, UNICEF and the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child included children's rights, responsibility, information about family and society, and saving issues in the “Social and Financial Education Program” developed for children in ninety countries. Of these, "The National Center for Economic Education for Children" produces the "Primary Education Economist" program and distributes it at the national level (Amagir et al., 2018). On the other hand, financial literacy has been added to the fields such as Mathematics and Science, which are evaluated within the scope of PISA, in some countries (OECD, 2013). There are many studies on the subject in the literature. Some of these have been done on university students, some on teachers and academics, some on high school and middle school students, and some on other adults. Studies on economics education and awareness of primary school students were conducted (Bayhan et al., 2007; Batty et al., 2015; Collins et al., 2016; Çar?kç?, 2019; Mammadova et al., 2021; Schug and Hagedorn; 2005; Ünlüer, 2021; Webley, 2005).

 

There are also some studies conducted to increase the knowledge level of students on the subject (Berry et al., 2015; Go et al., 2012; Sherraden et al., 2011). There are very few studies on the awareness of primary school 4th grade students about the family and the country's economy. In addition, these studies do not cover all the concepts and subjects that should be given within the scope of the social studies curriculum. This research tries to reveal the awareness of the concepts and topics that are aimed to be gained to the 4th grade students in the social studies curriculum. In this respect, the research is expected to contribute primarily to those working on the curriculum, teachers and other interested parties.

 

In this study, the awareness of the 4th grade primary school students about the family and the country's economy was examined within the scope of the social studies 4th grade curriculum.

 For this purpose, answers to the following questions were sought:

 

1. What is the awareness of students about economic concepts that they should have?

2. What is the awareness of the students about the production, consumption and distribution activities of the region they live in?

3. What is the awareness of the students about thrift and being a conscious consumer?

4. What is the awareness of the students about contributing to the family and national economy?

5. What is the awareness of the students about the family and the country's economy?


 METHOD

The research used qualitative research method. This research has the characteristics of a study in terms of examining the awareness of primary school 4th grade students about the family and the country's economy.

 

Research group

 

The study group of the research consists of 99 students studying in two primary schools in the Atakum district center of Samsun province in the 2020-2021 academic year. 56 of these students attend Seyfi Demirsoy Primary School and 43 of them from Fahrettin Ulusoy Primary School. One of the purposive sampling methods was used in the research. This method is used for elements that cannot be accessed easily and quickly even though they are sure of their existence. Considering that the sample size used in qualitative research is not suitable for generalization, easy and economical situations are preferred for the study (Patton, 2005; Vogt et al., 2012; Y?ld?r?m and ?im?ek, 2011).

 

Data collection tool

 

Economics is one of the most talked about topics in every period. At the same time, the deficiencies of individuals on these issues are often the subject of discussion in the society. For this reason, it is planned to prepare a questionnaire consisting of open-ended questions in order to see the awareness of the 4th grade students in primary school, which is the basis for acquiring many knowledge, skills and attitudes. Open-ended (unstructured) questions are preferred so that respondents can answer freely. In addition, with such questions, the researcher can have more extensive and detailed information about the subject by getting answers that he did not expect or planned (Büyüköztürk, 2005). Before the questions were prepared, the 4th grade social studies curriculum and textbook were examined and it was determined what the students expected to gain about the economy. After the review, 6 draft interview questions were created. The questions were sent to 2 experts from the fields of educational sciences and social studies, and they were asked to examine them. In line with the warnings from the experts, the number of questions in the interview form was reduced to 5 and rearranged. Then, the pilot application was carried out by applying the new form created to 10 students who would not take part in the original application. The application was made by the researcher under the supervision of classroom teachers. In the pilot application, provided that the number of questions remained constant, the questions that could not be understood well were rearranged and adapted to the level of the students.

 

Data collection

 

The data were collected from 99 4th grade students studying in two public primary schools in the Atakum District of Samsun Province in the 2021-2022 academic year. The application was carried out in the classrooms of 2 classroom teachers, who volunteered for the application in both schools. Due to the fact that some students did not come to school due to the pandemic, the application was carried out on existing students through face-to-face interviews in the presence of the classroom teacher. In this application, since the researcher and the respondent are in mutual interaction, it is thought that the control of the researcher regarding the application will increase and time and cost savings will be achieved. In addition, face-to-face interviews can be arranged individually or as a group (Büyüköztürk, 2005). 75 min were given to answer the questionnaires; 15 min were added to the students who could not answer within this time. During the application, necessary explanations were made about the points that the students did not understand. Particular attention was paid not to direct students while answering the questions.

 

Analysis of data

 

The data were analyzed by descriptive analysis. Descriptive analysis is an approach that covers the stages of processing qualitative data, defining the findings and interpreting the identified findings, adhering to a predetermined framework. In this approach, the results of the research are presented to the reader by making direct quotations without changing the original form of the data (Y?ld?r?m and ?im?ek, 2011). In this study, research questions were based on the creation of the main themes. Sub-themes were created by analyzing the data obtained from the questionnaires. In the analysis of the data, groupings were made according to the similarity of the expressions. The process of providing information from the collected data and comparing it with the emerging sub-themes is called the continuous comparison method in data analysis (Creswell, 2013).

 

Three of the 99 students participating in the study were not included in the analysis because they did not fill out the form sufficiently. Thus, the data obtained from 96 students were analyzed. Before starting the analysis, screening criteria were determined and coding was done according to these criteria. In this context, since the themes were determined at the beginning, some sub-themes were created as a result of the coding. Coding was done by another researcher who is an expert in qualitative research, in line with the criteria determined together at the beginning. It was tried to present the data effectively by making direct quotations from the statements of the students.

 

In the research, students were coded as S1, S2, S3… While coding was done, correct perceptions were coded according to the inferred meaning, while wrong and irrelevant answers were given under a common code. In content analysis, similar data are organized within the scope of various concepts and themes and it is interpreted in a way that the reader can understand (Büyüköztürk et al., 2012; Cohen et al., 2007; Y?ld?r?m and ?im?ek, 2011). In order to ensure reliability in qualitative research, the stability between the coding of more than one researcher on the data is taken into account (Creswell, 2013). In this context, the coding of the two researchers was compared and arranged as consensus and disagreement. Consensuses of codes close to each other and codes that are quite different from each other or cannot be decided on similarity are determined as differences of opinion. Codes on which no consensus could be reached were excluded from the study. After these determinations, the percentage of agreement (Reliability) = Consensus/(Agreement+Disagreement)x100 was calculated using the formula (Miles and Huberman, 2015). Percent of Concordance (Reliability)=167/ (167+33)100 was found to be approximately 0.84. A rate of agreement above 0.70 is interpreted as sufficient security (Y?ld?r?m and ?im?ek, 2011).


 RESULT

Awareness levels of the students participating in the research regarding the concepts related to economy are presented in Table 1. Looking at Table 1, students' awareness of the concepts related to economy, 86 (90%) of 96 students, 49 (51%) of budget, 71 (74%) of benefit, 66 of 'goods' regarding the concept of need. (69%), services 70% (73%), cost 30% (31%), economic activity 43 (45%), production 84 (88%), consumption 50 (52%), profession 73 (76%), saving 58 (60%), waste 70 (73%) and budget balancing 39 (41%) were found to be good. Other students expressed these concepts inadequately, incorrectly, or left them blank. It can be said that the awareness of these students about the concepts is insufficient. In addition, based on these data, it is seen that the majority of the students have sufficient awareness of the concepts of need, benefit, goods, production, consumption, savings and waste, but their awareness of the concepts of budget, cost, economic activity, balancing the budget is not sufficient. Some of the students' statements about these concepts are shown below:

 

1. Service, bringing the order given at the restaurant (S30), making a person's returns (S35)

2. Cost, money spent until selling (S72), money spent on something (T93)

3. Economic activity, income generating activity (S2), forestry, agriculture, fisheries, tourism (S11), all kinds of shopping where money is used (S40)

4. Production, making products (S76), the stages of an item until the market (S7), work done in the factory (S17)

5. Consumption, using the products produced (S10), buying the products from the grocery store and the market and having a meal (S58)

6. Profession, the job we specialize in (S40), Doctor, engineer, architect, nurse (S64)

7. Saving, using as much as needed (S12), using something as needed (S64)

8. Spending something unnecessarily (S56), not eating something to eat and throwing it away (S48)

9. Balancing the budget, adjusting our income and expenses (S55), stretching your feet according to your quilt.

 

 

 

 

The level of awareness of the students participating in the research about the economic activities in the regions they live in is presented in Table 2. Looking at Table 2, 84 (88%) of the 96 students participating in the research were aware of the academic activities in the region they live in, while 12 (13%) were not aware of it; 53 (55%) of the students were aware of the production stages of the products grown in the region, while 43 were not; 35 (36%) of the students were aware of the contribution of the products grown in the region to the economy, 61 (64%) were not aware of it; It is seen that 23 (24%) are aware of the growing conditions of the products grown in the region, 73 (76%) are not aware, 22 (23%) are aware of the difficulties and income situation in growing the products, 74 are not. Based on these data, it is understood that the students are quite aware of the production activities in their regions, but they are scarcely aware of the production stages, the contribution of production to the economy, the growing conditions of the products, the difficulties in growing the products and the income situation. In other words, it can be said that their awareness level is low. Some of the students' statements about the subject are shown below:

 

1. Production activities in the living environment: Education, industry, fisheries, ovine breeding, wheat barley production, hazelnut production (S9), Livestock, industry, hazelnut production, fisheries and food are produced in the environment where I live (S62)

2. Production stages: Peach cultivation, irrigation, care, spraying, collection, storage, selling- occupations farmer, marketer, market, greengrocer (S1), hazelnuts are gathered with the worker, come to the threshing floor, cleaned with pulp, dried, bagged, sold to the trader, the trader reaches the factory, is broken, sorted, packaged, sent to the market (S2)

3. Contribution of the products to the economy: Thanks to the hazelnuts and paddy produced in our region, people make a living (S2), wheat contributes a lot to our country, bread, etc. This is a beautiful thing (S90).

4. Growing conditions of products: Bafra District, watermelon; Due to its climate, watermelon grows very well. If there is a drought, it will be adversely affected (S1), hazelnut: The climate here is very suitable for hazelnut cultivation because hazelnuts love a humid climate. Hazelnuts collected because it is too rainy dry hard (S16)

5. Difficulties in growing products and income situation: Fishermen cannot earn much income due to fishing and unconscious fishing (S10), cold weather in spring and dry seasons in the interior of the Black Sea negatively affect production (S47).

 

 

 

Awareness levels of the students participating in the research regarding the concepts related to conscious consumerism are presented in Table 3. Looking at Table 3, out of 96 students, 78 (81%) explained what is understood by the concept of conscious consumer, 67 (70%) what to do before shopping, 42 (44%) what to do after shopping, 71 ( 74% what the expiry date means, 25 (26%) what TSE means, 43 (45%) what CE means, 33 (34%) what ISO does 72 (75%) of them stated that they are aware of what the receipt does, 56 (58%) of the invoice and 61 (64%) of them are aware of what the advertisement does. Other students expressed these concepts inadequately or incorrectly, and some left them blank. It can be said that the awareness of these students about the concepts is insufficient. In addition, based on these data, the majority of the students have good awareness levels about conscious consumer, thrift, things to do before shopping, expiry date, receipt and invoice; however, it is seen that the level of awareness about what to do after shopping, TSE, CE and ISO is low. Some of the students' statements about these concepts are shown below:

 

1. Conscious consumer is the consumer who balances his income and expenses (S78), Going to the market full, making lists, not being affected by advertisements, getting his needs (S11), Checks the expiry date, looks at the user manual, checks whether the package has been opened or not (S62).

2. Before shopping, I prepare a list of needs, because I have to decide beforehand what I need to buy and shop accordingly, I go to the room and see what I need, because I do not want to buy things that I do not need (S87), I look at my money, I look at my budget (S33)

3. After shopping, after checking our invoice, I delete and place the items I bought (S11), I check if the items I bought are defective, I check the label how to wash them S15, I get receipts after shopping, and I check my belongings (S39)

4. Expired products, spoiled or stale products may be harmful to human health. In addition, food poisoning may occur (S78), if we cannot finish it by the expiry date we will not buy it (S32)

5. TSE means conforming to Turkish standards (S17); it shows that it is produced according to the rules in Turkey (S10)

6. CE indicates that it is produced in accordance with the production rules in Europe (Ö48); it means that it complies with health and safety standards in Europe (S53)

7. It has an ISO international standard (S96), It shows that it is a quality and reliable product (S51)

8. The receipt is taken to check the prices of the goods and see how much they cost (S42). The seller pays tax when they receive the receipt (S14)

9. It is used in invoice, return and exchange transactions (S58), it shows how many TL of shopping they have made (S14)

10. Advertising ensures the promotion of the product and increases the sales (S10), the thing that persuades people to buy that item (S31).

 

 

 

 

 

Awareness status of the families of the students participating in the research regarding the income and expenditure status is presented in Table 4. When we look at Table 4, the answers given by the students to the questions asked about the income status of the family are evaluated under two categories: the income meeting the expenses and how they contribute to the family economy. While 53 (55%) of the 96 students who participated in the research stated that their income covered their expenses, 2 (2%) stated that their income was more than their expenses, they saved money, 8 (9%) stated that their income did not cover their expenses due to the cost of living. 34) did not answer the question and gave an irrelevant answer. Based on these data, it can be said that the students are not sufficiently aware of the income and expenditure status of the family. Some of the students' statements about your family's income, expenses and whether the income is sufficient for the expenses are shown below:

 

1. Our family's income and expenses are sufficient for each other (S35)

2. My mother and father are working. My mother earns 5000 TL and my father earns 6000 TL. Our income is sufficient for our expenses (S10).

3. It is not enough because our income is less than our expenses. We make moderate expenditures (S48).

4. Our income is sufficient for our expenses. We receive our requests with the money left after we receive our needs (S80).

5. Since my family's expenses are not high, our income is sufficient for expenses. Our revenues remain 400 TL when we spend 1000 TL on expenses per month. But I really don't know how much my mother earned (S78).

 

 

 

Regarding what the students do to contribute to the family economy, it is seen that 31% of 96 students did not buy unnecessary things, 12 of them made savings, and 23% did not answer the question and gave irrelevant answers. Based on these data, it can be said that the awareness level of the majority of the students about the contribution to the family economy is good. Some of the statements about what they do to contribute to your family's economy are shown below:

 

1. By not getting pocket money during the corona period (S1), giving the money I saved (S53), not buying things that are not needed (S96).

2. I restrict most of my desires and be thrifty and a little patient (S40).

3. I do not waste my allowance (S15)

4. I save money and meet my needs by taking money from my piggy bank (S73)

5. I buy cheap stuff. I use resources when I need them. I do not waste water (S62)

6. I don't buy everything I see and make a secret piggy bank from my mother. Then I give all my money to my mother. When I have a lot of money of my own, I don't spend it and keep it. I use this money for my needs when I need it (S78).

7. I do not leave the taps and lights on (S80).

 

Awareness status of the students participating in the research about contributing to the country's economy is presented in Table 5. Looking at Table 5, 17 (18%) of the 96 students who participated in the research regarding contributing to the country's economy were thrifty and not extravagant, 14 (15%) were careful not to waste, 6 (6%) were good at classes. While expressing this as a study, it is seen that 36 (38%) did not respond and gave irrelevant answers. Based on these statements, it is understood that the students contribute to the country's economy by not wasting more, not behaving extravagantly and economically. In addition, it can be said that the majority of the students are not aware of the subject. Some of the students' statements are shown below:

 

1. I don't leave the tap on while washing my hands, I don't leave the lights on unnecessarily, I don't waste electricity and I don't waste food (S12)

2. I do not buy more food and bread than necessary (S9)

3. I throw the things to be recycled into the recycling bin (S61)

4. I receive receipts or invoices for every product or service I buy. I pay special attention to buying domestic goods. I warn my friends about these issues (S47).

5 I help my parents to harvest tea and hazelnuts (S32)

6. I do not pollute the places by throwing garbage, I keep them clean. I fulfill my responsibilities (S63).

7. I am studying. I use consumable resources such as water, electricity and natural gas sparingly. I do not damage places such as poles, lamps and parks on the street (S78).

8. I don't do anything (S44).

 

 


 DISCUSSION

In the research, it has been determined that the majority of the students have sufficient awareness of the concepts of need, benefit, goods, production, consumption, savings and waste, but their awareness of the concepts of budget, cost, economic activity, balancing the budget is not sufficient. Economics education is not just for adults. Individuals in all age groups should have the necessary knowledge on economic issues. Therefore, economics education should be given to children from an early age (Webley, 2005). This training will enable them to be a good producer, a good consumer and even a good voter (Melendez et al., 2000; Suiter et al., 2004). This education is not carried out only through schools. Family life and media tools also play an important role in this regard (Bayhan et al., 2007; Schug and Armento, 1985; Hansen et al., 2002; Webley, 2005; OECD, 2017; Wehmeyer, 1980).

 

However, if economics topics are handled with the active participation of students in connection with real life, they can better understand the difficult and complex structure of the economy (Buckles, 2001; Murphy and Walsh, 1989). In many studies on the subject, it is emphasized that children can learn economics-related subjects in a more enjoyable and permanent way with a good economics education program (Racich, 1982; Schug and Birkey, 1985; Day, 1988; Schug and Hagedorn, 2005). Based on these data, it can be said that education on economic issues should start from an early age. The effect of the education given on economic issues will not only be reflected in the economic gains of the individual in his future life, but also will have important effects on his political and social life. As a result of his research, Çar?kç? (2019) found that primary school fourth grade students heard some concepts related to economics but did not have information about their functions. It can be said that there is a partial similarity between Çar?kç?'s research and the results of this research. There are no other studies on the level of awareness of elementary school 4th grade students about concepts related to economy. Based on these results, it can be said that the awareness level of the students about the concepts related to the economy is not sufficient. The reason for this may be that the education given is not suitable for the level of the students, the appropriate methods and techniques are not used and the necessary importance is not given.

 

Experimental studies on primary school students have shown that students with economics education are more successful in economics (Akhan, 2010; Davison and Kilgore, 1971). According to Akhan (2013), it was emphasized that while in the first years of the republic, more importance was given to economic issues, by making students active in the process and by adapting them to daily life, but recently the importance given to the subject has decreased. It has been determined that the students participating in the research are quite aware of the production activities in their regions, but they are little aware of the production stages, the contribution of production to the economy, the growing conditions of the products and the difficulties in growing the products, and the income from the products.

 

According to Mandell (2008), there is a significant relationship between the socio-economic level of the family and their children's approaches to financial matters; emphasizes that children with high economic levels manage money better, and students in lower socio-economic groups are more affected by the lack of education given in this sense at school.

 

In another study conducted on secondary school students, it was found that students learned information about the economy mostly from their families, and partially from social media, newspapers and friend groups; it has been determined that very few of them benefit from their teachers at school (Mammadova et al., 2021). As a result of his research, Güvenç (2017) revealed that the most learning outcome related to financial literacy, which is included in the compulsory courses category, is not sufficient, although it is included in the primary school stage of the social studies curriculum, the life studies curriculum and the mathematics curriculum. Studies conducted to increase the knowledge level of students on economics and finance have found significant increases in students' success (Berry et al., 2015; Go et al., 2012; Sherraden et al., 2011). From the relevant literature, it is understood that the socio-economic status of the family is effective on the level of awareness of the students about the economy. In this case, it can be said that effective results can be obtained if the necessary education is given to the students, taking into account the socio-economic status of the families of the students. In addition, it is seen that studies on production, consumption and economic activities, which are mainly limited to social studies, are not sufficient. The majority of the students have good awareness levels about conscious consumer, thrift, things to do before shopping, expiry date, receipt and invoice; however, it is seen that the level of awareness about what to do after shopping, TSE, CE and ISO is low. Mammadova et al. (2021), in their study on secondary school students, determined that the majority of students save money from their pocket money and they tend to use this savings for their primary needs.

 

In the study conducted by Tetik (2019), it was found that although the level of financial literacy is low in Turkey, this result is similar to the world average; In this context, it has been determined that the financial literacy levels of those with low income and education level are also low, the financial literacy levels of women are lower than men, and there is no increase in financial literacy level with age. Çar?kç? (2019) found that the majority of students were willing to save, heard about financial concepts, but could not define them, but did not have an idea about their functions and scopes, although they heard about money price and budget. It has been concluded that the financial programs applied to primary school students create a positive change in students' attitudes (Batty et al., 2015; Collins, O'Rourke, Odders-White et al., 2016; Schug and Hagedorn; 2005). Again, in studies conducted to increase the knowledge level of students on the subject, it was determined that there were significant increases in students' success (Berry et al., 2015; Go et al., 2012; Sherraden et al., 2011). In order to gain such concepts, educational environments suitable for making the concepts concrete can be organized.

 

It has been determined that the majority of the students have a low level of awareness about the income and expenditure situation of the family, but their awareness level about the contribution to the family economy is good. According to the results of the research conducted by Y?ld?r?m and Öztürk (2017) to determine the opinions of field experts and teachers on economic literacy, it was determined that the level of economic literacy and the education received in economics in the Turkish society were insufficient. Similar results have been obtained from studies conducted on the same subject on different societies (Davies, 2006; Disney and Gathergood, 2013; OECD, 2017). In his study, Çar?kç? (2019) emphasized that it is not enough to give financial literacy competencies only to those who are in working life, to university students, and that this awareness should be gained from the primary school years. Since there is no study in the literature to determine the awareness of students regarding the income and expenditure status of the family, a comparison could not be made. However, according to the research data, it can be said that the family does not support the child enough in economic matters, does not show the necessary effort to raise economic awareness and the school-family cooperation is insufficient in this regard.


 RECOMMENDATION

In line with the results of the research, the following suggestions can be made:

 

1. Research can be conducted using different methods on students selected from different provinces and different socio-economic levels in order to determine the level of awareness of primary school 4th grade students about concepts.

2. In order to provide elementary school students with the concepts of economics, associations can be made with different courses and subjects.

3. More emphasis can be placed on school-parent cooperation efforts to increase awareness of economic concepts; it can be ensured that parents take their children to markets and shopping centers to participate in shopping decisions.

4. Class trips can be organized by teachers to places where shopping will be done, and students can talk and discuss basic concepts such as products, prices, and budget.

5. Class trips, projects, etc., covering economic activities in the environment. It can be tried to create awareness among students by organizing

6. Research assignments can be given on the family budget, the state budget and how these will reflect on them, and discussions can be made on the subject when appropriate.

7. Different practices on this subject can be followed by the Ministry of National Education officials and good practices can be reflected in the programs and practices.


 CONFLICT OF INTERESTS

The author has not declared any conflict of interest.



 REFERENCES

Akhan NES (2010). ?lkö?retim sosyal bilgiler ö?rencilerinde ekonomi okuryazarl???n?n durumu ve geli?tirilmesi (Yay?mlanmam?? Doktora Tezi). Gazi Üniversitesi E?itim Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Ankara.

 

Akhan NE (2013). Ad?m ad?m ekonomi okuryazarl???: sosyal bilgiler dersleri için alternatif yollar, Ad?yaman Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi 6(14):1-36.
Crossref

 

Amagir A, Groot W, Maassen vBH, ve Wilschut A (2018). A review of financial- literacy education programs for children and adolescents. Citizenship, Social and Economics Education 17(1).
Crossref

 

Atkinson AF, Messy (2013). Promoting financial inclusion through financial education: OECD/INFE Evidence, Policies and Practice. OECD Working Papers on Finance, Insurance and Private Pensions P 34.

 

Berry J, Karlan D, ve Pradhan M (2015). The impact of financial education for youth in Ghana. No. w21068, National Bureau of Economic Research.
Crossref

 

Batty M, Collins JM, Odders?White E (2015). Experimental evidence on the effects of financial education on elementary school students' knowledge, behavior, and attitudes. Journal of Consumer Affairs 49(1):69-96.
Crossref

 

Bayhan P, Yükselen A, Kaysili BK (2007). Çocuklar?n ekonomiyle ilgili kavramlara yönelik alg?lar?n?n ya?lara göre incelenmesi. E?itim ve Bilim 32(143):3-12.

 

Buckles S (2001). What Is-And Isn't - Economics Education. Theory into Practice 26(3):163-169.
Crossref

 

Büyüköztürk ? (2005). Anket geli?tirme. Türk E?itim Bilimleri Dergisi 3(2):133-151.

 

Büyüköztürk ?, Çakmak-K?l?ç E, Akgün ÖE, Karadeniz ?, ve Demirel F (2012). Bilimsel ara?t?rma yöntemleri (13. bask?). Ankara: Pegem Akademi.

 

Child and Youth Finance International (CYFI) (2013). A guide to economic citizenship education: Quality financial, social and livelihoods education for children and youth-guidebook.

 

Cohen L, Manion L, Morrison K (2007). Research methods in education (6th ed.). Routledge/Taylor and Francis Group.
Crossref

 

Creswell JW (2013). Nitel ara?t?rma yöntemleri: Be? yakla??ma göre nitel ara?t?rma ve ara?t?rma deseni. Ankara: Siyasal Kitabevi.

 

Çar?kç? O (2019). ?lkokul 4. S?n?f ö?rencilerinin finansal fark?ndal?k düzeyinin belirlenmesine yönelik bir ara?t?rma. Akdeniz Üniversitesi Sosyal biimler Enstitüsü Dergisi 5:133-157.

 

Collins JM, O'Rourke C, Odders-White E (2016). Evaluating experiential financial education in elementary classrooms. Working Paper. Retrieved from:

View

 

Davison DG, Kilgore JH (1971). A model for evaluating the effectiveness of economic education in primary grades. The Journal of Economic Education 3(1):17-25.
Crossref

 

Davies P (2006). Educating citizens for changing economies. Journal of Curriculum Studies 38(1):15-30.
Crossref

 

Day HR (1988). Play Dough Economics: Motivating Activities for Teaching Economics to Elementary and Middle School Students. Indianapolis.

View

 

Disney R, Gathergood J (2013). Financial literacy and consumer credit portfolios. Journal of Banking and Finance 37(7):2246-2254.
Crossref

 

Go CG, Varcoe K, Eng T, Pho W, ve Choi L (2012). Money savvy youth: evaluating the effectiveness of financial education for fourth and fifth graders. San Francisco, CA: Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.

View

 

Gömleksiz MN, ve Kan AÜ (2009). Sosyal bilgiler dersi ö?retim program?n?n ele?tirel dü?ünme, yarat?c? dü?ünme ve giri?imcilik becerilerini kazand?rmadaki etkilili?inin belirlenmesi (Diyarbak?r ili örne?i). F?rat Üniversitesi Do?u Ara?t?rmalar? Dergisi 8(1):39-49.

 

Güvenç H (2017). Ö?retim programlar?m?zda finansal okuryazarl?k. ?lkö?retim Online 16(3):935-948
Crossref

 

Hansen WL, Salemi MS, Siegfried JJ (2002). Use it or lose it: teaching literacy in the economics principles course. The American Economic Review 92(2):463-472.
Crossref

 

Kourilsky M (1977). The kinder-economy: A case study of kindergarten pupils' acquisition of economic concepts. The Elementary School Journal 77(3):182-191.
Crossref

 

Mammadova G, Gökalp M, ve Hatuno?lu BY (2021). ?lkokul ve ortaokul ö?retim programlar?ndaki kazan?mlarda finansal okuryazarl?kla ilgili ö?rencilerin tutum ve görü?leri. Uluslararas? Toplum Ara?t?rmalar? Dergisi 18(39):2528-9535.
Crossref

 

Mandell L (2008). Teaching young dogs old tricks: the effectiveness of financial literacy ?ntervention in pre-high school grades, chapter in thomas a. lucey and kathleen s. cooter (eds), Financial Literacy For Children And Youth Digitaltextbooks.biz Retrieved from

View

 

MEB (2018). ?lkö?retim sosyal bilgiler dersi ö?retim program?: Ankara.

 

Melendez WR, Beck V, Fletcher M (2000). Teaching social studies in early education. United States of America: Thomson Learning.

 

Miles MB, ve Huberman AM (2015). Nitel veri analizi (?kinci bask?dan çev.) (S. Akbaba ve A. E. Altun Çev Ed.). Pegem Akademi, Ankara.

 

Murphy S, Walsh J (1989). Economics and the real-life connection. Social Studies And The Young Learner 2(1):6-8.

 

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (2012). Finansal e?itim ulusal stratejisi üst düzey ilkeleri. organisation for economic co-operation and development: Paris.

 

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (2013). Financial literacy framework, PISA 2012 Assessment and Analytical Framework: Mathematics, Reading, Science, Problem Solving and Financial Literacy, OECD Publishing.

 

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (2014). PISA 2012 Results: students and money: financial lite-racy skills for the 21st century (Volume VI) OECD Publishing.

 

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (2017). What do 15-year-olds really know about money?. PISA in Focus 2017/72 (May).

 

Suiter MC, Dempsey J, Pettit MAB, Reiser ML (2004). Focus: middle school economics. New York: National Council on Economic Education.

 

Patton MQ (2005). Qualitative research. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Limited.

 

Racich MJ (1982). Economic education in the elementary grades: implementation and evaluation. A Dissertation Submitted in Partial Satisfaction of the Requirements of the Degree of Doctor of Education. Illinois State University.

 

Schug M, Birkey C (1985). The development of children's economic reasoning. Theory and Research in Social Education 13(1):31-42.
Crossref

 

Schug MC, Armento BJ (1985). Teaching economics to children. Mark C. Schug (Ed.). Economics in the school curriculum k-12 (s.33-43). Washington: The Joint Council on Economic Education ve The National Education Association Publications.

 

Schug MC, ve Hagedorn EA (2005). The Money Savvy Pig™ goes to the big city: Testing the effectiveness of an economics curriculum for young children. The Social Studies 96(2):68-71.
Crossref

 

Tetik N (2019). Türkiye'nin finansal okuryazarl?k düzeyi: literatür taramas? ve sonuçlar?n de?erlendirilmesi. Electronic Turkish Studies 14(6).
Crossref

 

Tüysüz S (2019). ?lkokul sosyal bilgiler 4 ders kitab?. Ankara: Tuna Matbaac?l?k San. ve Tic. A?.

 

Ünlüer G (2021). Sosyal bilgiler dersinde finansal okuryazarl?k becerisinin etkinlikler yoluyla kazand?r?lmas?na ili?kin eylem ara?t?rmas?. International Journal of Humanities and Education 7(15):277-303.

 

Ürper Y (2015). Giri?imcilik kavram?, çe?itleri ve giri?imcilikte etik. (s. 2-21) Giri?imcilik ve ?? Kurma, 3.b. Anadolu Üniversitesi: Eski?ehir.

 

Sherraden MS, Johnson L, Guo B, ve Elliott W (2011). Financial capability in children: Effects of participation in a school-based financial education and savings program. Journal of Family and Economic Issues 32(3):385-399.
Crossref

 

Webley P (2005). Children's understanding of economics. M. Barrett and E Buchanan-Barrow (Ed). Children's understanding of society içinde (s.43-67). Hove: Psychology Press.

 

Wehmeyer MM (1980). A kindergarten economics project (ERIC Raporu: ED238751). 30.10.2021 tarihinde.

View

 

Vogt WP, Gardner DC, Haeffele LM (2012). When to use what research design. New York: Guilford Press.

 

Y?ld?r?m G, Oztürk C (2017). An invesigation of the views of the field experts and teachers related to economic literacy and its education. Erciyes Journal of Education 1(2):1-22.

 

Y?ld?r?m A, ve ?imsek H (2011). Sosyal bilimlerde nitel ara?t?rma yöntemleri (8. bask?). Ankara: Seçkin Yay?nevi.

 




          */?>